Conjugation

From NovaRoma
Revision as of 19:40, 11 March 2013 by Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus (Talk | contribs)
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)
Jump to: navigation, search

 Home| Latíné | Deutsch | Esperanto | Español | Français | Italiano | Magyar | Português | Română | Русский | English

Latin grammar

Introduction
The Latin language
The Latin sentence
The four conjugations
The five declensions


Nominative - Accusative - Genitive - Dative - Ablative


Vocative - Locative


Latin phrasebook
Latin for e-mail
Latin jokes
Reading list
Online resources


All articles about Latin


Latin is an inflected language, and as such its verbs must be conjugated in order to express person, number, time, tense, mood or voice. A set of conjugated forms of the same verb pattern is called a conjugation (verb inflection group). There are four conjugations, which are numbered and grouped by ending.

This is a summary of the conjugation of Latin verbs.

Which conjugation a verb belongs to

Latin is a heavily inflected language, which means that Latin indicates grammatical information by changing the ending of the words. Verbs are grouped into four conjugations (verb inflection groups). If we change a verb’s ending to express the person or the time (tense), we say we “conjugate” it. To determine which conjugation group a verb belongs to, you have to look into a Latin dictionary.

In the case of the verb “have”, you will find:

habeo –ére, -bui, -bitum

This is 4 pieces of information:

(1) habeo; it is the first person singular of the verb “have”. It means “I have”.

(2) –ére; it’s an abbreviation of “habere”, the infinite of the verb. It means “to have”.

(3) –bui; it’s an abbreviation of “habui”, the perfect tense of the verb. It means “I have had” or “I had”.

(4) –bitum; abbreviation of “habitum”, it’s the supine (or the past participle).

This verb’s infinitive, “habére” (to have), indicated in the dictionary form as “–ére” shows that this verb belongs to the 2nd conjugation, as all verbs that have the infinitive ending “-ére” belong to the 2nd conjugation. The second dictionary element, the infinitive, determines which conjugation the verb belongs to. The four types of infinitive endings and the four conjugations determined by the different infinitive endings are:

-are = 1st conjugation; e.g.: am|o, -are, -avi, -atum (I love)

-ére = 2nd conjugation; e.g.: hab|eo, -ere, -bui, -bitum (I have)

-ere = 3rd conjugation

- if the first person singular ends in "-o" - Consonant Stem; e.g.: dic|o, -ere, dixi, dictum (I say)
- if the first person singular ends in "-io" - Short I-Stem; e.g.: cap|io, -ere, cepi, captum (I catch)

-ire = 4th conjugation; e.g.: aud|io, -ire, -ivi, -itum (I hear)

Note that “–ere”, which is short vowel, is different from “–ére”, which is long vowel.

How to conjugate a verb

You simply cut off the infinitive endings -are, -ére, -ere and -ire, or the the Perfect Tense first person singular ending , depending on which tense you want to form, and replace them with the personal endings shown below in the tables, respectively to the conjugation group to which the verb belongs to.

Contents

Present Tense

The Present Tense is equivalent of the English Present Progressive ("I am saying") and Present Simple ("I say").

Unlike English, Latin uses verb endings to express the person and number of the verb, and its tense or mood. These endings are in general the same for all conjugation groups, but there is some variation respectively to the stem vowel, which means that while, e.g. the singular third person ending is "-t" in all conjugations, in the 1st conjugation it's realized as "-at", because it's the A-Stem conjugation, in the 2nd conjugation it's "-et", (as they are the E-Stem) etc.

This tense is formed from the 2nd dictionary part, by cutting off the infinitive endings -are, -ére, -ere and -ire, and replacing them with the personal endings shown below in the table, respectively to the conjugation group to which the verb belongs to.


First conjugation Second conjugation Third conjugation Fourth conjugation
A-Stem E-Stem Consonant Stem Short I-Stem Long í-Stem
amó, -áre, -áví, -átum
love
habeó, -ére, -buí, -bitum
have
dícó, -ere, díxí, dictum
say
capió, -ere, cépí, captum
catch
audió, -íre, -íví, -ítum
hear
S/1 amó I love hab -eó I have dícó I say cap -ió I catch aud -ió I hear
S/2 amás -ás you love habés -és you have dícis -is you say capis -is you catch audís -ís you hear
S/3 amat -at he loves habet -et he has dícit -it he says capit -it he catches audit -it he hears
P/1 amámus -ámus we love habémus -émus we have dícimus -imus we say capimus -imus we catch audímus -ímus we hear
P/2 amátis -átis you love habétis -étis you have dícitis -itis you say capitis -itis you catch audítis -ítis you hear
P/3 amant -ant they love habent -ent they have dícunt -unt they say capiunt -iunt they catch audiunt -iunt they hear


Imperfect Tense

The Imperfect Tense indicates a perpetual, but incomplete action in the past. It simply expresses an action in the past that was not completed. This tense is similar to the English Past Progressive ("I was saying"), but depending on context, it can also be identified with English Past Simple ("I said"). "Dícébam" can be translated to mean, "I was saying," "I said," or "I used to say".

This tense is formed from the 2nd dictionary part, by cutting off the infinitive endings -are, -ére, -ere and -ire, and replacing them with the personal endings shown below in the table, respectively to the conjugation group to which the verb belongs to.

First conjugation Second conjugation Third conjugation Fourth conjugation
A-Stem E-Stem Consonant Stem Short I-Stem Long í-Stem
amó, -áre, -áví, -átum
love
habeó, -ére, -buí, -bitum
have
dícó, -ere, díxí, dictum
say
capió, -ere, cépí, captum
catch
audió, -íre, -íví, -ítum
hear
S/1 amábam -ábam I was loving habébam -ébam I was having dícébam -ébam I was saying capiébam -iébam I was catching audiébam -iébam I was hearing
S/2 amábás -ábás you were loving habébás -ébás you were having dícébás -ébás you were saying capiébás -iébás you were catching audiébás -iébás you were hearing
S/3 amábat -ábat he was loving habébat -ébat he was having dícébat -ébat he was saying capiébat -iébat he was catching audiébat -iébat he was hearing
P/1 amábámus -ábámus we were loving habébámus -ébámus we were having dícébámus -ébámus we were saying capiébámus -iébámus we were catching audiébámus -iébámus we were hearing
P/2 amábátis -ábátis you were loving habébátis -ébátis you were having dícébátis -ébátis you were saying capiébátis -iébátis you were catching audiébátis -iébátis you were hearing
P/3 amábant -ábant they were loving habébant -ébant they were having dícébant -ébant they were saying capiébant -iébant they were catching audiébant -iébant they were hearing


Perfect Tense

The Perfect Tense refers to an action completed in the past. The Perfect Tense expresses a finished action in the past. If the action were not finished, but still lies in the past, one would use the Imperfect Tense. The Latin Perfect Tense is equivalent to the English Present Perfect ("I have said"), but unlike English, the Latin Perfect Tense is used in the function of English Past Simple whenever it describes a finished, completed event. Thus "díxí" can be translated as "I have said," or "I said".

This tense is formed from the 3rd dictionary part, by cutting off the Perfect Tense first person singular ending , and replacing it with the personal endings shown below in the table.

First conjugation Second conjugation Third conjugation Fourth conjugation
A-Stem E-Stem Consonant Stem Short I-Stem Long í-Stem
amó, -áre, -áví, -átum
love
habeó, -ére, -buí, -bitum
have
dícó, -ere, díxí, dictum
say
capió, -ere, cépí, captum
catch
audió, -íre, -íví, -ítum
hear
S/1 amáví I have loved habuí I have had díxí I have said cépí I have caught audíví I have heard
S/2 amávistí -istí you have loved habuistí -istí you have had díxistí -istí you have said cépistí -istí you have caught audívistí -istí you have heard
S/3 amávit -it he has loved habuit -it he has had díxit -it he has said cépit -it he has caught audívit -it he has heard
P/1 amávimus -imus we have loved habuimus -imus we have had díximus -imus we have said cépimus -imus we have caught audívimus -imus we have heard
P/2 amávistis -istis you have loved habuistis -istis you have had díxistis -istis you have said cépistis -istis you have caught audívistis -istis you have heard
P/3 amávérunt -érunt they have loved habuérunt -érunt they have had díxérunt -érunt they have said cépérunt -érunt they have caught audívérunt -érunt they have heard


Pluperfect Tense

The Pluperfect Tense expresses an action which was completed before another completed action. As with English, in Latin, the Pluperfect is used to assert an action that was completed before another. "Díxeram" translates as "I had said."

This tense is formed from the 3rd dictionary part, by cutting off the Perfect Tense first person singular ending , and replacing it with the personal endings shown below in the table.

First conjugation Second conjugation Third conjugation Fourth conjugation
A-Stem E-Stem Consonant Stem Short I-Stem Long í-Stem
amó, -áre, -áví, -átum
love
habeó, -ére, -buí, -bitum
have
dícó, -ere, díxí, dictum
say
capió, -ere, cépí, captum
catch
audió, -íre, -íví, -ítum
hear
S/1 amáveram -eram I had loved habueram -eram I had had díxeram -eram I had said céperam -eram I had caught audíveram -eram I had heard
S/2 amáverás -erás you had loved habuerás -erás you had had díxerás -erás you had said céperás -erás you had caught audíverás -erás you had heard
S/3 amáverat -erat he had loved habuerat -erat he had had díxerat -erat he had said céperat -erat he had caught audíverat -erat he had heard
P/1 amáverámus -erámus we had loved habuerámus -erámus we had had díxerámus -erámus we had said céperámus -erámus we had caught audíverámus -erámus we had heard
P/2 amáverátis -erátis you had loved habuerátis -erátis you had had díxerátis -erátis you had said céperátis -erátis you had caught audíverátis -erátis you had heard
P/3 amáverant -erant they had loved habuerant -erant they had had díxerant -erant they had said céperant -erant they had caught audíverant -erant they had heard


Subjunctive Present

You use Subjunctive Present (e.g. "Dicam") when English uses the auxiliary verbs "let" ("Let me say it"), "may" ("May I say it"), "shall", ("I shall say it"), or, mainly in subordinate clauses, when English uses Present Subjunctive or Imperative ("Imperat ut dicam": "He orders that I say"; or "Dicas": "Say it").

This tense is formed from the 2nd dictionary part, by cutting off the infinitive endings -are, -ére, -ere and -ire, and replacing them with the personal endings shown in the table below, respectively to the conjugation group to which the verb belongs to.

First conjugation Second conjugation Third conjugation Fourth conjugation
A-Stem E-Stem Consonant Stem Short I-Stem Long í-Stem
amó, -áre, -áví, -átum
love
habeó, -ére, -buí, -bitum
have
dícó, -ere, díxí, dictum
say
capió, -ere, cépí, captum
catch
audió, -íre, -íví, -ítum
hear
S/1 amem -em may I love habeam -eam may I have dícam -am may I say capiam -iam may I catch audiam -iam may I hear
S/2 amés -és may you love habeás -eás may you have dícás -ás may you say capiás -ias may you catch audiás -iás may you hear
S/3 amet -et may he love habeat -eat may he have dícát -at may he say capiat -iat may he catch audiat -iat may he hear
P/1 amémus -émus let's love habeámus -eámus let's have dícámus -ámus let's say capiámus -iámus let's catch audiámus -iámus let's hear
P/2 amétis -étis may you love habeátis -eátis may you have dícátis -átis may you say capiátis -iátis may you catch audiátis -iátis may you hear
P/3 ament -ent may they love habeant -eant may they have dícant -ant may they say capiant -iant may they catch audiant -iant may they hear


Subjunctive Imperfect

The Subjunctive Imperfect is used when English uses the auxiliary verbs "would" and "should", "Dicerem" can be translated as "I would say" or "I should say". Sometimes it can also be translated with "could" or "might" as "I could say" or "I might say". Occasionally the Subjunctive Imperfect expresses possibility in the past and in such sentences it's best translated with "could have" or "might have". In wishes and in conditional sentences, it is translated by English Past Subjunctive ("Vellem dicerem": "I wish I said"); in subordinate clauses, however, it is translated by English Present Subjunctive ("Imperavit ut dicerem": "He ordered that I say").

This tense is formed from the 2nd dictionary part, by cutting off the infinitive endings -are, -ére, -ere and -ire, and replacing them with the personal endings shown in the table below, respectively to the conjugation group to which the verb belongs to. Practically, the formation of this Subjunctive Imperfect looks like as if the personal endings would be simple attached to the infinitive.

First conjugation Second conjugation Third conjugation Fourth conjugation
A-Stem E-Stem Consonant Stem Short I-Stem Long í-Stem
amó, -áre, -áví, -átum
love
habeó, -ére, -buí, -bitum
have
dícó, -ere, díxí, dictum
say
capió, -ere, cépí, captum
catch
audió, -íre, -íví, -ítum
hear
S/1 amárem -árem I would love habérem -érem I would have dícerem -erem I would say caperem -erem I would catch audírem -írem I would hear
S/2 amárés -árés you would love habérés -érés you would have dícerés -erés you would say caperés -erés you would catch audírés -írés you would hear
S/3 amáret -áret he would love habéret -éret he would have díceret -eret he would say caperet -eret he would catch audíret -íret he would hear
P/1 amárémus -árémus we would love habérémus -érémus we would have dícerémus -erémus we would say caperémus -erémus we would catch audírémus -írémus we would hear
P/2 amárétis -árétis you would love habérétis -érétis you would have dícerétis -erétis you would say caperétis -erétis you would catch audírétis -írétis you would hear
P/3 amárent -árent they would love habérent -érent they would have dícerent -erent they would say caperent -erent they would catch audírent -írent they would hear


Subjunctive Perfect

The Subjunctive Perfect rarely appears in independent sentences, it's mostly used in subordinate clauses, where it's translated by English Past Subjunctive (dixerim - "I said"). When it's used independently, it normally translates with the English auxiliary verbs "may have". "Dixerim" can be translated as "I may have said".

This tense is formed from the 3rd dictionary part, by cutting off the Indicative Perfect Tense first person singular ending "", and replacing it with the Subjunctive Perfect personal endings shown in the table below.

First conjugation Second conjugation Third conjugation Fourth conjugation
A-Stem E-Stem Consonant Stem Short I-Stem Long í-Stem
amó, -áre, -áví, -átum
love
habeó, -ére, -buí, -bitum
have
dícó, -ere, díxí, dictum
say
capió, -ere, cépí, captum
catch
audió, -íre, -íví, -ítum
hear
S/1 amáverim -erim I may have loved habuerim -erim I may have had díxerim -erim I may have said céperim -erim I may have caught audíverim -erim I may have heard
S/2 amáverís -erís you may have loved habuerís -erís you may have had díxerís -erís you may have said céperís -erís you may have caught audíverís -erís you may have heard
S/3 amáverit -erit he may have loved habuerit -erit he may have had díxerit -erit he may have said céperit -erit he may have caught audíverit -erit he may have heard
P/1 amáverímus -erímus we may have loved habuerímus -erímus we may have had díxerímus -erímus we may have said céperímus -erímus we may have caught audíverímus -erímus we may have heard
P/2 amáverítis -erítis you may have loved habuerítis -erítis you may have had díxerítis -erítis you may have said céperítis -erítis you may have caught audíverítis -erítis you may have heard
P/3 amáverint -erint they may have loved habuerint -erint they may have had díxerint -erint they may have said céperint -erint they may have caught audíverint -erint they may have heard


Subjunctive Pluperfect

The Subjunctive Pluperfect can be translated with the English auxiliary verbs "would have" or "should have". "Dixissem" can mean "I would have said", "I should have said". Sometimes it can be translated as "I could have said" or "I might have said". It is translated by English Pluperfect Subjunctive ("I had said") when it is used in subordinated clauses ("Vellem dixissem": "I wish I had said").

This tense is formed from the 3rd dictionary part, by cutting off the Indicative Perfect Tense first person singular ending "", and replacing it with the Subjunctive Pluperfect personal endings shown in the table below.

First conjugation Second conjugation Third conjugation Fourth conjugation
A-Stem E-Stem Consonant Stem Short I-Stem Long í-Stem
amó, -áre, -áví, -átum
love
habeó, -ére, -buí, -bitum
have
dícó, -ere, díxí, dictum
say
capió, -ere, cépí, captum
catch
audió, -íre, -íví, -ítum
hear
S/1 amávissem -issem I would have loved habuissem -issem I would have had díxissem -issem I would have said cépissem -issem I would have caught audívissem -issem I would have heard
S/2 amávissés -issés you would have loved habuissés -issés you would have had díxissés -issés you would have said cépissés -issés you would have caught audívissés -issés you would have heard
S/3 amávisset -isset he would have loved habuisset -isset he would have had díxisset -isset he would have said cépisset -isset he would have caught audívisset -isset he would have heard
P/1 amávissémus -issémus we would have loved habuissémus -issémus we would have had díxissémus -issémus we would have said cépissémus -issémus we would have caught audívissémus -issémus we would have heard
P/2 amávissétis -issétis you would have loved habuissétis -issétis you would have had díxissétis -issétis you would have said cépissétis -issétis you would have caught audívissétis -issétis you would have heard
P/3 amávissent -issent they would have loved habuissent -issent they would have had díxissent -issent they would have said cépissent -issent they would have caught audívissent -issent they would have heard
Personal tools