Coup d’état of Caesar and Sulla (Nova Roma)
Annales for 2768 AUC (2015)
Consular government (1 January – 31 December)
- Consul: M. Pompeius Caninus
- Consul: Sex. Lucilius Tutor
The year proceeded normally under the consulship of M. Pompeius and Sex. Lucilius, until Consul Sex. Lucilius Tutor published some popular reform proposals in the Senate in October. The reform ideas were based on a broad consensus of the citizens and represented the desires of the Nova Roma membership. This grassroots initiative was perceived as a questioning of the autocratic power held by Cn. Iulius Caesar and L. Cornelius Sulla Felix, and consequently they protested the proposals and sabotaged the session of the senate through Sulla’s “acting princeps senatus” prerogatives. The initiative of Consul Lucilius represented a new hope that Nova Roma would end the practice of secretive and arrogant exclusionist management style of the clique of Sulla, Caesar and their closest senatorial friends, and would signal the return to normal way of activity in Nova Roma with educational and community projects and consensus-based decision making: it was, however, against the interests of Sulla and Caesar who were known as the proponents of converting Nova Roma into a virtual political rivalry game, and as the opponents of the original goals of Nova Roma as an educational and cultural organization and Roman revivalist real life community. Caesar and Sulla started losing their power and they needed to fabricate a pretext so that they can cement their rule and realize their project of converting Nova Roma into their private game.
Background history of the coup: the years between 2011-2015
Sulla and Caesar were the quasi-monarchic rulers of Nova Roma since they eliminated all other leading members during 2009-2010, rising to absolute power in 2011, and rendering Nova Roma dysfunctional for the next years to come. They didn’t use their power in Nova Roma to make the organization thriving and successful, they didn’t create projects or a welcoming atmosphere. Caesar and Sulla used their power only to play informal fiefs or emperors who boss around the community fora and lecture people about their power, as a result of which, they drove away most of the active contributing citizens and drove Nova Roma into a period of rapid decline.
During the years of their informal “monarchy” between 2011-2015, Caesar and Sulla committed various violations against Nova Roman law, Roman tradition and against the interests and cause of Nova Roma. They violated the principles of Roman religion by removing the legitimate pontifex maximus by a senate decree (such a removal could have been legally done only by the Collegium Pontificum) and appointing Sulla-Caesar Faction members as pontifices even though some of them weren’t even practitioners of the religion. They oppressed the Latin Society, the Sodalitas Latinitatis of Nova Roma by intervention into their elections. They added an illegal clause to all of their decrees so that they can be reverted only by 4/5 majority of the voting of all citizens, which made their laws almost impossible to be repealed. They manipulated the results of elections by illegal manipulation of the voting blocks (tribes and centuries). Many irregularities were discovered in the assignment of citizens to the various centuries, for example, Caesar’s wife and some other faction members were accorded greater voting power than warranted. On the other hand, while they paid great attention to the enactment of oppressive laws and decrees and to play political faction-war games against the active contributors of Nova Roma, Sulla and Caesar greatly neglected the real, valuable missions and duties of Nova Roma. Applications for citizenship were neglected, some pending for more than three years. All cultural activities and programs were made by voluntary citizens, and were never supported or never initiated by the Caesarian-Sullan leadership. Caesar or Sulla have never organized or helped the organization of any event, program or cultural activity of Nova Roma as our mission would have required. Two censuses, mandated by the laws of Nova Roma, were missed due to the negligence of Caesar’s and Sulla’s leadership. They focused only on their insult campaigns against members who dared to criticize them and on their hurtful “power games” for titles and domination. It was as clear as the Sun to all observers: their only goal is the conversion of the entirety of Nova Roma into their type of “role play game” as emperors, and to abandon our serious cultural and educational mission.
As the most respected leading citizens of Nova Roma were speaking up against the agenda of the Sulla-Caesar clique, it was increasingly widespread knowledge within the organization that Sulla and Caesar had been scheming for the absolute control of Nova Roma, and that for them power within Nova Roma was an end in itself, a game to bully all active citizens out of the organization and to play a “conquer all power and rule as an emperor” type of game. More and more supporters of Sulla and Caesar ceased to support them as it turned out that they didn’t act in the best interest of Nova Roma, because it became apparent in numerous cases that they didn’t hesitate to cause damage to Nova Roma if it could strengthen their own position. As a result of their bullying tactics which they employed to keep Nova Roma firmly under their domination in the last years, over a hundred of citizens left Nova Roma in protest or were expelled from Nova Roma because of Sulla and Caesar: Nova Roma lost its Academy, they drove away our Latinists, they dissolved the Magna Mater Project, the practice of yearly international Nova Roma conventus was terminated. We lost a large section of the Roman religion community and most of the priesthood, we also lost most of our allied reenactor groups and Nova Roma lost most of the provincial communities. As both their public statements and actions indicate, Sulla and Caesar deliberately turned off all these people in order to secure that there is no opposition to their paramount leadership, and that they can keep complete and permanent control over Nova Roma.
They were almost completely successful, but as of November 2015, there were still remnants of liberty and independent civic activism: they wanted to get rid of these, too, in order to establish Nova Roma as Sulla’s and Caesar’s household “empire”, free from academic or educational aspects, changing the profile of Nova Roma from a real life Roman revivalist organization to an political Role Playing Game where they can be the co-emperors with all citizens as their subjects.
Coup d’état of Caesar and Sulla (16-17 November) After the Sullan-Caesarian sabotage against the reform proposals of Consul Sex. Lucilius in the senate in October, the discontent of the Nova Roma membership was rapidly growing. For the first time after many years, candidates who were openly critical of Sulla and Caesar applied for the highest offices in the approaching yearly elections. In an attempt to cement their own unlimited power and to kill off the growing number of critical voices within Nova Roma, Caesar and Sulla decided to shut down the upcoming free elections, to purge their remaining opponents and to remove the democratic elements from Nova Roma. Caesar, with the permission of Sulla, proclaimed himself the Dictator of Nova Roma with unlimited power over the republic (which is also the non-profit corporation of Nova Roma) and started to exterminate all form of opposition.
Nova Roma was shocked and traumatized. This was an illegal and ruthless takeover, a coup d’état: Caesar and Sulla established an unconstitutional form of dictatorship and expelled long term citizens from Nova Roma in order to make way for their new version of Nova Roma as their private fiefdom. Caesar’s and Sulla’s actions were not only against the law of Nova Roma, but also against the law of the State of Maine of USA where Nova Roma is incorporated as a nonprofit corporation. This is what caused their ultimate demise within Nova Roma, as the membership of Nova Roma turned to corporate lawyers for help. This led to the birth of the united coalition of the entire membership, and the reorganization of our republic.
As the surfaced evidences show, Sulla and Caesar decided about the coup and had been preparing for it since at least 2013, the year when Sulla was Consul without colleague. First they built an informal domination starting from 2011, then they worked out the institutional background for a coup d’état in 2013, and finally they went on to introduce the formal and official Dictatorship on November 16, 2015.
The actual establishment of the illegal dictatorship of Caesar and Sulla was prompted by the following series of events:
In November, Sulla and Caesar wanted to pass a number of senatus consulta that required new citizens to disclose if they had ever been members of any “competing organizations” (i.e. other brotherly Roman organizations that Sulla and Caesar considered their personal enemies because they were created by people who Sulla and Caesar exiled or drove away). These senatus consulta endangered the citizenship of those citizens who did not know earlier that there was a regulation in Nova Roma that you couldn’t join another Roman organization and it was open to plenty of other abuses. In defense of all present and future citizens of Nova Roma who were members of other Roman organizations, the Tribunes of the Plebs, led by P. Porcius Licinus, vetoed these decrees because it was their duty, a right and an obligation granted to them by the Constitution. As a reaction to this, Caesar and Sulla, supported by the Sulla-Caesar Faction member Senators who constituted the Senate majority, decided to overturn the fundamental agreement on the Nova Roman “mos maiorum“, the cornerstone of all the civic life in Nova Roma, and they denied the constitutional right of veto (ius intercessionis) of the Tribunes of the Plebs.
The Consul Sex. Lucilius Tutor argued that he considered the veto valid, but that he would obey the Senate’s decision under all circumstances. The other Consul, M. Pompeius Caninus urged citizens to obey the Sulla-Caesar Senate majority. Many other citizens, among them the Praetor Hadrianus and the Censor Placidus posted public statements in defense of the validity of the constitution and of the Tribunes’ constitutional obligation to defend the rights of citizens. While the forum debates were ongoing, suddenly Sulla and Caesar activated the Executive Committee of the Senate which was (as it turned out later by the attorneys’ investigation) an illegal institution according to USA Maine State law. This “Executive Committee”, which consisted only of Sulla and Caesar, declared Caesar the “Dictator of Nova Roma” on November 16, a shocking surprise to the entire Nova Roma membership.
After Caesar appointed himself “Dictator” and Sulla as his vicar, they immediately declared the lawful vetoes invalid, cancelled free elections, and annihilated the citizenship, by expulsion for life, not only of the vetoing Tribunes of the Plebs, but also the lawful Consul (the elected President of Nova Roma, Inc.), the Praetor (Vice-President NR, Inc.), the Censor (Secretary NR, Inc.), several Senators (Members of the Board of Directors NR, Inc.) and many simple citizens without any due procedure.
With this appalling recklessness, 18 years of Nova Roma constitutional tradition and practice was tramped on and destroyed. Caesar and Sulla threw out the Nova Roman social contract and the mos maiorum for their short-term political gain, and shut down the constitution, the laws and all members who expressed different views or voiced any disagreement. Even though the Consul Sex. Lucilius Tutor promised full compliance to the Senate, dominated by the Sulla-Caesar Faction, it wasn’t “enough compliant” for Caesar the illegal “Dictator”: they expelled him and everyone who spoke in favor of the veto, for no other reason than expressing an opinion. They also expelled some other citizens who did not even speak during the veto situation, but who were disliked by Caesar or Sulla for various reasons. These were all very serious offences under the laws of the USA, since it meant the violation of rights and expulsion of the corporate members of Nova Roma, Incorporated.
This was followed by a series of resignations of citizenship by many outraged citizens and a split in the the organization which resulted in the founding of a new spin-off organization (RR), causing a huge loss of members for Nova Roma. The fact that Caesar, Sulla and their faction’s Senate majority destroyed the principles that bonded the community of Nova Roma together alienated almost all of their old supporters and this contributed to the fact that all the remaining active citizens of Nova Roma came together in a form of coalition against Caesar and Sulla.
The use of the Senate Executive Committee to establish a dictatorship was particularly shocking for the membership because this committee was nominally created to solve minor bureaucratic issues such as filing reports to IRS or substituting a magistrate if he is unavailable in time of urgency. At least this is how they sold the establishment of the Executive Committee to the Senate in 2013, although from the time of the creation of this committee there are public records of Sulla saying on the forum that “Caesar knows how it would be possible to create a legally valid dictatorship in NR“. From similar public statements and from all the leaked information it is clear that they have been planning this coup d’état since 2013 at least, and they waited for the occasion when they could strike down. It was now. They used the Tribunes’s veto as a justification to declare a “state of emergency”. They claimed there was a crisis with the veto situation, even if in reality it was not a crisis, but an ordinary event in the res publica. In Nova Roma politics (just like in ancient Rome), it was common and usual for the Tribunes to issue vetoes: this was the normal course of action; it was their job! At this time Caesar, however, claimed that this was an “emergency crisis situation” which could be solved only by a Dictator. This illegal and unethical use of the dictatorship was also unprecedented in Nova Roma and subverted not only the constitutional common sense, but the social contract and the so called “mos maiorum of Nova Roma”.
All these aspects contributed to the reason why so many citizens could so quickly form a united protesting front against the dictatorship. This hostile takeover and overthrow of not only the laws and legal government both also the social, moral and ethical foundations of Nova Roma was the last step in a series of destructive actions that Sulla and Caesar had committed for the complete control of Nova Roma.
The start of the liberation of Nova Roma (19 November) On 19th November, at the initiative of the leader of the opposition, Quaestor Cn. Lentulus, the expelled citizens and their supporters formed a “Government In Exile”, chaired by Consul Sex. Lucilius Tutor. The exiled members, with the immense contribution and invaluable assistance of P. Porcius Licinus, the exiled vetoing Tribune, employed the help of two American corporate attorneys in the defense of the lawful Nova Roma. The attorneys determined that Sulla and Caesar broke the law of the State of Maine USA with their offenses and abuses. About 300 Nova Roma citizens signed, or expressed their support for, an Official Complaint Letter to be filed at court in the State of Maine. Many of the earliest citizens of Nova Roma, consular senators, former magistrates and priests, reenactors and Nova Roma activists, among them Co-Founder of Nova Roma, Flavius Vedius Germanicus, Augur and former Consul, Censor and Senator, joined the Complaint Letter: Nova Roma became a single united voice of protest against the Sulla-Caesar Faction and their puppet Senate.
Annales for 2769 AUC (2016)
Government in exile (1 January – 7 October)
- Special Proconsul: Sex. Lucilius Tutor (1 January- 7 October)
- Executive secretary of the Proconsul: Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
- Legatus charged to lead the lawsuit: P. Porcius Licinus
- Special advisors: Po. Minucia Strabo, C. Aurelius Suenseranus, A. Tullia Scholastica, C. Claudius Quadratus
- Committee of the Liberators (various leaders, advisers and executives)
After the illegal coup d’état and the expulsion of the elected government, committed by the Cn. Iulius Caesar and L. Cornelius Sulla Felix, the law-abiding loyalist senators of Nova Roma gathered together and appointed, by a special senatus consultum ultimum, the exiled Consul, who was then by January just Proconsul, Sex. Lucilius Tutor, to lead the “Government In Exile Saving Nova Roma”. This temporary “liberation government” rallied all citizens of Nova Roma to re-establish their free Roman republican community and to return to the rule of law. P. Porcius Licinus, who as Tribune of the Plebs was expelled from Nova Roma alongside with the lawful government, led the negotiations with the corporate attorneys to put an end on the abuses of Caesar and Sulla, and managed to compel the illegal dictator Caesar to resign from his position.
On March 11, Caesar resigned from his illegal dictatorship. However, the Sulla-Caesar Coup Faction retained full control over the Senate (corporate board of directors), so the loyalist senators of Nova Roma had no other choice but to hold a separate session, free from the influence from the illegal dictator and his faction, and to find a way to create a lawful government for Nova Roma that would restore the res publica.
The months from April to September were spent by preparing for the corporate elections and rallying citizens to pay their taxes (membership fee) in order to elect a leadership for the corporation that is truly representing the interests of the members of Nova Roma and the mission of Nova Roma. Even though a record number of citizens paid their membership fee, the Board, still controlled by Caesar, refused to hold corporate elections, and it continues to do so this until this day (October 2017). The members of Nova Roma paid to Sulla, the treasurer in vain, which is just another addition to the list of crimes of the Sulla-Caesar duo.
In September, Government In Exile, authorized by Censor Placidus according to the Senate Rules in force, convened the non-corporate senate for the second time, to figure out the future of Nova Roma under the current circumstances.
- Interregnum (7 October – 22 October)
- Interrex: Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Alexander (7 October – 22 October)
The Government In Exile was finally able to find a legal way (“legal” as defined by the internal republican legal system of Nova Roma) to hold a regular session of the Senate composed of the loyalist senators, and the free Senate of Nova Roma appointed Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Alexander (Lentulus the Elder) as Interrex for 4 consecutive terms, with the restriction that he must appoint his filius familias, the experienced Nova Roma activist and legal expert, Lentulus the Younger as his Chief of Staff, and must employ his legal expertise to organize the transition from the informal “Government in Exile” to a formal and legal government of Nova Roma. Interrex Lentulus Alexander was given the mandate to restore the foundations of the democratic and lawful republican government and to elect the consuls for the year 2016. With the assistance of Lentulus filius, Interrex Lentulus Alexander completed all of his tasks and held democratic elections to elect the consuls according to the laws of Nova Roma.
Consular government (22 October – 31 December)
- Consul: Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Alexander
- Consul: T. Domitius Draco
During the course of October, the assembled loyalist citizens demanded that Lentulus the Younger should be elected as one of the two Consuls (as he was referred to by consensus as “the most productive leader in Nova Roma”), but after he refused to occupy this position because it would have been contrary to the status of his cursus honorum and thus against the mos maiorum, the senators and the leading citizens accepted a compromise that Lentulus would run for the consulship as a team with his pater familias, the former Interrex Lentulus Alexander, and if elected, he would lead the government as Chief of Staff again as it was done previously under the interregnum. There were 5 candidates for the consulship and a historical record participation in the elections. Elected as the new consuls for the few remaining months of the year were the former Interrex Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Alexander and former government officer T. Domitius Draco. They created a new “temporary constitution” for the duration of the “Sulla-Caesar coup d’état” crisis: the lex Cornelia Domitia de re publica constituenda, which was enacted in December. This temporary legal framework enables Nova Roma to live and function in the current circumstaces when it is deprived from its Corporation (Nova Roma, Inc.) by Caesar, Sulla and their Coup Faction. With this historic breakthrough, the “non-corporate” civic body, the active community of Nova Roman citizens, became separate and independent from the Corporation of Nova Roma, just like at the time of the founding of Nova Roma in 1998.
By the end of December, as a result of the government of Consuls Cn. Lentulus Alexander and T. Domitius, the free community of Nova Roma became able to function and work as a res publica again, with a complete civic life. Under the consulship of Cn. Lentulus and T. Domitius, the non-corporate Nova Roma succeeded to recruit the legio II Adiutrix as an allied legion of Nova Roma, and by doing so, we further increased our presence in the world.
The lex Cornelia Domitia de re publica constituenda also provided that in the next critical year a government based on broad consensus guide the community of Nova Roma to increase citizen activism, cultural life and to lead the work of rebuilding Nova Roma. This collective government was based on ancient Roman republican traditions, the office of the Tribuni Militum Consulari Potestate, which often was chosen as a form of government in time of crisis. This institution has been re-introduced to Nova Roma in order to rebuild our community in 2017.
Annales for 2770 AUC (2017)
Tribunician government (1 January – 14 October, 2017)
- Tribunus Militum Consulari Potestate: Sex. Lucilius Tutor
- Tribunus Militum Consulari Potestate: C. Claudius Quadratus
- Tribunus Militum Consulari Potestate: P. Annaeus Constantinus Placidus
- Tribunus Militum Consulari Potestate: Q. Lutatius Catulus
The consular tribunician government of the free citizens and free parts of Nova Roma was established as a broad consensus leadership to work on the resolution of the crisis caused by the Sulla-Caesar Coup Faction, while the other priority of the tribunician government was to restore an energetic, active cultural and civic life to the Nova Roma community.
January saw an important session of the non-corporate senate of Nova Roma, where governors were appointed to all provinces, and the reenactor legions of Nova Roma were assigned to representative state commanders-in-chief (serving only as a point of contact and also ceremonial purposes; the self-governance of the reenactor legions is completely independent).
On the Kalends of March, the non-corporate tribunician government celebrated the 19th Birthday of Nova Roma by a great real life convention and public rituals at the Aquincum amphitheater, organized by quaestor and praefectus Lentulus (governor of the area), with the participation of two Nova Roman legions and an allied legion of Nova Roma.
The Ludi Novi Romani (the Nova Roman Games) were held for two weeks between March 1-15, jointly by the tribuni militum consulari potestate with the assistance of the quaestores to mark the 19th Anniversary of the Founding of Nova Roma and the Opening of the Sacred 20th Year of Nova Roma. The tribunician government ran various contests, games, literary competitions rituals in honor of this significant milestone in the life of Nova Roma, proving to the world that Nova Roma, without the corporation, is as strong as ever, and our citizens have successfully reorganized the community of Nova Roma, which is now completely functional and growing again.
The senate met in April and it was enacted by senatus consultum that one of the tribuni militum consulari potestate shall represent Nova Roma in Rome, at the Parilia Festival (the Birthday of Rome) which is the greatest Roman reenactor parade in the world, held in the city of Rome annually, and shall offer a sacrifice in the city of Rome for Nova Roma, and for the resolution of the corporate crisis to end the “civil war” of Sulla and Caesar.
On the Parilia Festival (the Birthday of Rome) Nova Roma was represented personally by our leader tribunus militum consulari potestate C. Claudius Quadratus, and he offered sacrifices at various sacred locations of ancient Rome for the benefit of the Nova Roman citizens. In honor of the Birthday of Rome, several prominent citizens were elevated to the equestrian order as an award and official recognition for their merits and long time service to Nova Roma.
In May, the tribunician government started the preparations for a Grand International Conventus of Nova Roma, an institution that the Sullan-Caesarian regime neglected during their tenure: the convention would take place in Rome, next year, and it would be the VIIIth International Conventus of Nova Roma. Also in May, in Pannonia, the Lemuria festival was publicly remembered in an event held by the allied Legio II Adiutrix, jointly with Nova Romans, and the 11th Floralia Aquincensia Nova Romana were organized by governor Cn. Cornelius Lentulus with the participation of both Nova Roman and allied reenactor legions, and with a huge public ceremony held in honor of the Sacred 20th Year of Nova Roma, with new citizens joining as a result of the successful event.
In June, the consular tribunician government passed an edict of declaration of friendship with the other three Roman organizations (the RR, the RPR and the RA) and the non-corporate senate and people of Nova Roma offered various gestures and favors to these organization as a sign of friendship and brotherhood. Since the entire crisis and coup d’état of Caesar and Sulla that ruined our corporation started when the People of Nova Roma and our Tribunes of Plebs defended the members of the RR and the RPR organizations, this gesture from Nova Roma was a most noble intention to crown out efforts in friendship with all people on the world who identify themselves as Romans.
In July, the traditional Nova Roma Reenactor Summer Camp was held in the Nova Roman burgus of Colonia Rostallo. Around the same time, the next session of the non-corporate senate recognized the activities and the successful community of the Bulgarian Nova Romans, and due to the growth and achievements of the Nova Romans of Bulgaria, the Senate decided to elevate the Bulgarian Nova Roman community to the status of provincia. By senatus consultum, a new province was created for Nova Roma, Provincia Thracia, with A. Vitellius Celsus as its first governor. This milestone in the history of Nova Roma and the success of Nova Roma in Bulgaria was met with unanimous acclaim by the entire citizenry as a sign of the new dawn of Nova Roma. The new province was established and inaugurated together with its first governor on 12 August at the Nicopolis Ad Istrum Festival, during a Nova Roman interprovincial convention between citizens of Thracia and Pannonia.
In September, the Ludi Romani were celebrated in two separate locations of the world by Nova Roma. The Ludi Romani was a special occasion in our Sacred 20th Year: the sacrifices and the celebrations this year were performed as a preparation for the Ides of October (15 October), the October Horse Day, when, according the order of the people written in the lex Cornelia Domitia, the Soul of the Roman People shall be united with Nova Roma in the Pignora Imperii and the Palladium, as part of the special event commemorating our beginning in 1998. Our Ludi Romani this year were dedicated to ask the gods to prepare themselves to these historical Ides of October. Our citizens celebrated the Ludi Romani this year with two main events in two locations on the same day, on September 17: in Aquincum, Provincia Pannonia of Nova Roma (Budapest, Hungary) and in Ulpia Serdica, Thracia (Sofia, Bulgaria). Thracian Nova Romans performed Latin songs and Roman poems and they held a scholarly researched demonstration of the Roman civil process in court. They performed a theatrical reenactment of the issuing of the Edict of Tolerance from Emperor Galerius, and a Roman military scene presenting the retirement of a Roman veteran. The Thracian Ludi Romani of Nova Roma in Thracia was closed by an antique fashion demonstration. The Pannonian Nova Romans offered a spectacular sacrifice to Iuppiter Optimus Maximus asking his blessing to the Completion of the Founding Years of Nova Roma and for the upcoming Ides of October milestone, then the Nova Roman team performed various programs including short “introduction to Latin” workshop, Roman wedding, Roman trial, and gladiatorial combats.
In October, a session of the (non-corporate) senate was held to determine our future policies, and in the same month the term of office of the consular tribunes ended, and the consular tribunes concluded their year with successful accomplishment of most of the objectives of their mandate.
Interregnum (14 October – 31 December, 2017) By October 14, the mandate of the tribuni militum consulari potestate expired, and, according to the lex Cornelia Domitia de re publica constituenda Interreges took over the government which is to last until the end of the current year.
The first interrex in the series, Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Alexander, served for three consecutive terms (14-18, 19-23, 24-28 October). The second interrex was M. Minucius Audens, he also served for three consecutive terms (29 October – 2 November, 3-7, 8-12 November). The third interrex was in fact an interregina, the first female interrex in world history: A. Tullia Scholastica. She served for three consecutive terms from 13-17, 18-22, 23-27 November). The fourth, Gallio Velius Marsallas, one of the first citizens of Nova Roma, and praefectus of the oldest Nova Roman legion, the legio XXIV Media Atlantia governed Nova Roma between 28 November – 12 December, for three terms. The fifth Interrex was again Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Alexander, between 13-17, 18-22, 23-27 and 28-31 December, four terms of interregnum. After him, the new Consuls took over.
- Interrex: Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Alexander (14 October – 28 October, 2017)
The first interrex, Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Alexander, served for three consecutive terms (14-18, 19-23, 24-28 October). He exercised his power through his deputy, Cn. Lentulus the Younger, the praefectus rei publicae (on the ancient model of praefectus urbi) assigned to manage the day-to-day state affairs.
On October 15, in Aquincum, in a huge ceremony with about 30 Roman participants, 5 allied groups attendings, and with a crowd of onlookers watching and rooting, the founding years of Nova Roma have been concluded at the October Horse ceremony of the Completion of the Founding of the Nova Roman People, under the auspices of Interrex and Acting Interim Rex Sacrorum Cn. Lentulus Alexander. Nova Roma has received Her Palladium and Pignora Imperii which from now on, will be protected and venerated as the most sacred divine objects and tokens of the Nova Roman People, the essence and identity, the heart and soul of Nova Roma, on which the safety, welfare, prosperity, victory and good luck of the Nova Roman People depends. The establishment of the sacred tokens was followed by the birth and foundation rites and the founding lustratio under royal auspices. Participants from Nova Roma in Aquincum celebrated the October Horse with observing every single little detail of its ancient tradition. Nova Romans celebrated the event with an October Horse running “horse race”, with proper rituals, with a gladiatorial fight and a legionary performance and a open air dinner with wine and Roman food.Meanwhile on the same day, at the Nova Roma-allied temple of Iuppiter in Poltava, Ukraine, a parallel ritual was held asking Iuppiter to support and approve the Completion of Founding ceremonies that we were doing at Aquincum.
At the end of the celebrations, the interrex and acting rex sacrorum proclaimed the Confirmation of the Declaration of Nova Roma and called the Nova Roman People to vow to be loyal to the Confirmation of the Declaration as the cornerstone of Nova Roma and of all its principles, goals, laws and Constitution, and sacrificially, numinously and ceremonially founded, by royal pronouncement, as it was in the case of Romulus and Numa, the Comitia, the Senate, the Collegium Pontificum and Augurum (which existed validly even this far, but now they exist religiously validly, the same way how the ancient ones existed). From this day on, every institution of Nova Roma emanates from the Gods’ inaugurated and consecrated approval, enacted by a founding kingly action, at the expressed will and order of the People.
With this historical groundbreaking action, the Nova Roman People has been inaugurated and consecrated, under royal auspices, and it has been dedicated, by the sacred contract, to the gods of Rome, with a detailed list of obligations in which our minimum sacra publica will exist.
- Interrex: M. Minucius Audens (29 October – 12 November, 2017)
The second interrex was M. Minucius Audens, he was serving for three consecutive terms (29 October – 2 November, 3-7, 8-12 November). The Interrex governed Nova Roma with the assistance of the Quaestors (Ministers) and and with a government staff.
- Interregina: A. Tullia Scholastica (13 – 27 November, 2017)
The third interrex was in fact an interregina, the first female interrex in world history: A. Tullia Scholastica. She was serving for three consecutive terms from 13-17, 18-22, 23-27 November). Interregina Tullia Scholastica held a session of the senate appointing the next interreges, restoring the plebeian tribuneship and preparing their election and the transition to consular government.
- Interrex: Gallio Velius Marsallas (28 November – 12 December, 2017)
The fourth Interrex was Gallio Velius Marsallas, one of the first citizens of Nova Roma, and praefectus of the oldest Nova Roman legion, the legio XXIV Media Atlantia.
- Interrex: Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Alexander (13 – 31 December, 2017)
The fifth Interrex, who served as the last in the series who lead the interim government, was again Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Alexander, who had to publish the Confirmation of the Declaration of Nova Roma and our complete contract with the gods establishing the basic requirements of the sacra publica of Nova Roma. Lentulus Alexander governed Nova Roma between 13-17, 18-22, 23-27 and 28-31 December, four terms of interregnum. After him, the new Consuls took over.
Under the interregnum of Lentulus Alexander, elections were held according to the laws of Nova Roma, and C. Claudius Quadratus and T. Domitius Draco were elected consuls for our 20th Anniversary Year, the Sacred Year of Concordia were elected from among the candidates.
Annales for 2771 AUC (2018) – 20th Anniversary – Sacred Year of Concordia
Consular government (1 January – current)
- Consul: C. Claudius Quadratus
- Consul: T. Domitius Draco (II)
In January, the Committee of the Liberatores decided to hire a new law firm in order to bring definitive action against the illegal Caesarian Coup Faction which had been usurping the corporation of Nova Roma since the Coup d’état of 2015 November.
In February, Consul T. Domitius Draco held a session of the non-corporate senate and senatus consulta were enacted about the Vicennalia (20th Anniversary) celebrations and about defending the structural organization of the cultus deorum in Nova Roma from the negative impacts of the rogue Board of Directors which is under the illegal control of Sulla and Caesar.
Between 1-15 March, Nova Roma, under the government of consul C. Claudius and T. Domitius, celebrated the 20th Birthday of Nova Roma. On March 1st, the day of the Concordialia (the Day of Roman Unity), pontifex Cn. Lentulus held the live central celebration of the 20th Anniversary where approximately 20 Nova Roman citizens were present in Aquincum, Budapest. Praetor Q. Arrius Nauta, with the assistance of Cn. Lentulus pontifex and priest of Concordia, offered the main Concordia-ritual for the jubilee, and a sacrifice to Iuppiter, Mars, Iuno and Dea Nova Roma. It was a gathering and grand celebration of the 20th birthday of Nova Roma with 5 different Roman reenactor communities affiliated to Nova Roma coming together in honor of this milestone in New Roman History. There was a magnificent sacrifice to Concordia, patroness of Nova Roma, there were gladiatorial combats, which are also part of the online gladiatorial games, a legionary parade, wine, Roman food, cookies and the good company of Nova Romans: a big celebration and gathering. At the same time, all priests, governors and officials of Nova Roma, who aren’t able to be present in person, were offering rituals to Concordia, Iuppiter and Mars for our 20th Anniversary, at their location.
In the upcoming 15 days, the Vicennial Ludi Novi Romani celebrated our 20th Anniversary with several sacrificial ceremonies over the days and with various live and online games with prizes for the winners. The 20 Anniversary celebrations also included, as part of the Ludi Novi Romani, a very special festive program of Nova Roma, held in a number of museums consecutively, in a series of events featuring the world-famous Seuso Treasure. Nova Roma’s Colonia Rostallo, led by praefectus C. Villius Vulso, has presented the world-famous Seuso Treasure within the frames of the programs of the Ludi Novi Romani, celebrating the completion of Nova Roma’s second decade. The Cohors VI Carpathica, the military unit assigned to the burgus Colonia Rostallo of Nova Roma, has deserved this privilege for their constant dedicated and high quality educational service in this region. Nova Roma was commemorated during the event, and newspaper and television reports were made about our appearances. Nova Romans were in the television while celebrating the 20th Anniversary of Nova Roma! It is a great honor to our Colonia Rostallo and to the entire Nova Roma that we have been selected to provide the show and festival for the Seuso Treasure which is one of the most important treasures that remained from the Roman age. These priceless ancient Roman artefacts saluted our 20th Anniversary, quite an honor!
These programs included the presentation of the Seuso Treasure, legionary honor guard and drill by the Cohors VI Carpathica, Roman ritual by praefectus rei publicae Cn. Lentulus for the 20th Anniversary blessings of the new decade of Nova Roma, Roman fashion, games and competitions in the spirit of the Ludi Novi Romani.
Between 20-22 April, Nova Roma celebrated its 20th Anniversary and the Sacred Year of Concordia at the 7th Grand International Conventus of Nova Roma, now first organized after a decade of break caused by the previous neglectful regime of the Sullan-Caesarian clique. Roughly about 30 citizens of Nova Roma from all over the world and from several countries gathered together for the Conventus in Rome, the Eternal City, where they visited the various historical monuments. On the day of the Parilia (Birthday of Rome, 21 April), the consuls of Nova Roma offered sacrifice in the name of Nova Roma, through the priestly assistance by pontifex Lentulus, in front of the Palatine Hill where Rome was founded. On the following day, Nova Romans participated in the “Natale di Roma” parade procession officially as “Nova Roma” with the consecrated flag of Nova Roma, through the Circus Maximus, Campus Martius, the Capitolium, the imperial forums, the Colosseum and the Via Triumphalis, in honor of the Parilia, together with 1500 reenactors from about 50 groups from all over the world. Our procession was led by the consules themselves, C. Claudius Quadratus, augur, and T. Domitius Draco, followed by censor A. Tullia Scholastica, aedilis curulis P. Annaeus Constantinus Placidus, aedilis plebis Ti. Fabius Nepos, quaestrix C. Sergia Blatta, and quaestor Cn. Cornelius Lentulus, pontifex, as organizer of the Conventus, supervisor of the 20th Anniversary Festivals, and as the praefectus of Italia.
In May, Nova Roma celebrated its 20th Anniversary and the Sacred Year of Concordia at the 12th Floralia Aquincensia Nova Romana, organized by governor Cn. Cornelius Lentulus with the participation of both Nova Roman and allied reenactor legions, and with a huge public ceremony, presided by Praetor M. Aurelius Cotta Iovius, in honor of the 20th Anniversary of Nova Roma and the Sacred Year of Concordia.
Also in May, the new attorneys of the Nova Roman People started the definitive action against the Sulla-Caesar Coup Faction and contacted the attorney of Sulla and Caesar in order to call them to cease and desist from their unlawful usurpation of the assets of Nova Roma, and to give back the corporation to the members of Nova Roma. The new phase of negotiations started this month.
The senate was called to order in May by Consul C. Claudius Quadratus, and senatus consulta were enacted which required the collegium pontificum to make a decision about the status pf the secessionist and rogue pontifices and the pontifex maximus who participate in the illegal coup regime of Caesar and Sulla. Senatus consulta were also enacted about the future reforms of the Nova Roman Constitution, a new coinage, a new message board system hosted by Nova Roma. The senate awarded the title “Pater Patriae” to Cn. Cornelius Lentulus, the Younger, for his contributions to the completing of the founding of Nova Roma and for his leading role in the Saving Nova Roma movement.
On June 23, in the spirit of our 20th Anniversary, the Sacred Year of Concordia, Nova Roma had two events, one in Pannonia (Hungary), in the Villa Romana Baláca, with the Cohors VI Carpathica, and the other in Nova Britannia (New England, USA), the Roman Days hosted by governor A. Iulius Paterculus.