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An amictus is an outer garment; the chlamys, pallium, laena, or toga. [1]


An idumentum is an undergarment; generally, a tunica. [1]


"Those of the Greeks and Romans who wore shoes, including generally all persons except youths, slaves, and ascetics, consulted their convenience, and indulged their fancy, by inventing the greatest possible variety in the forms, colours, and materials of their shoes." [2]


Solea is a simple sandal Sandalium, with a sole amd with straps for fastening across the foot. [3]

It was sometimes made of wood [4]

for use by country folk.

The solea worn by the upper classes was mainly worn in the house. Outdoor footwear were shoes Calceus. Slippers [[[Soccus]] or soleae were carried for use when visiting. According to the state of the roads or of the weather, the shoes or boots were again put on in order to return home, the soleae being carried, as before, under the arm. [5]

When circumstances were favorable, this change of shoes for slippers or soleae was not considered necessary, the latter being worn in the streets. [6]

Soleae ligneae, soles or shoes of wood, were put on, under the authority of the Roman law, either for the purpose of torture, or perhaps merely to indicate the condition of a criminal, or to prevent his escape. [7]

In domestic life the sandal commonly worn by females was often used to chastise a husband and bring him into subjection. [8]


Calceus is a shoe or boot that substantially covers the foot and may cover much of the leg. Types of calcei are the caliga (worn by soldiers), the pero (worn by laborers) and the cothurnus (worn by tragedians, hunters, and horsemen). [2]


  1. 1.1 1.2 Smith's Dictionary, "Amictus". [1]
  2. 2.1 2.2 Smith's Dictionary, "Calceus" [2]
  3. Gellius, III.14, XIII.21
  4. Isidore Orig. XIX.34
  5. Horace Epist. I.13.15
  6. Martial XII.88
  7. Cicero Invent. ii.50, ad Herenn. i.13
  8. Menander, p68. 186, ed. Meineke: solea objurgabere rubra, Pers. V.169; sandalio, Ter. Eunuch. v.8.4.; Juv. VI.516

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