Current constitution (Nova Roma)

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{{LanguageBar|Current constitution (Nova Roma)}}
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#REDIRECT [[Lex Equitia de constitutione corrigenda (Nova Roma)]]
 
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{{Constitution NR
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<div class="scriptum">
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===Preamble===
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We, the Senate and People of Nova Roma, as an independent and sovereign nation, herewith
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set forth this Constitution as the foundation and structure of our governing institutions and common
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society. We hereby declare our Nation to stand as a beacon for those who would recreate the best
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of ancient Rome. As a nation, Nova Roma shall be the temporal homeland and worldly focus for the
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Religio Romana. The primary function of Nova Roma shall be to promote the study and practice of pagan
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Roman civilization, defined as the period from the founding of the City of Rome in 753 BCE to the removal of the altar of Victory from the Senate in 394 CE and encompassing such fields as religion, culture, politics, art, literature, language, and philosophy.
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As the spiritual heir to the ancient Roman Republic and Empire, Nova Roma shall endeavor to exist, in all manners practical and acceptable, as the modern restoration of the ancient Roman Republic. The culture, religion, and society of Nova Roma shall be patterned upon those of ancient Rome.
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===I. Constitutional Basis===
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:'''A'''. This Constitution shall be the basic authority for all decision-making within Nova Roma and shall limit the authority of all magistrates and bodies, and all ''leges'' (laws) passed by the ''comitia'', ''decreta'' (decrees) of the priestly ''collegia'', magisterial ''edicta'' (edicts) and ''Senatus consulta'' shall be subject to it except as provided by the following two provisos:
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::'''1'''. The ''edicta'' (edicts) of a ''dictator'' appointed under this Constitution may override its provisions, insofar as he is empowered to do so by the ''Senatus consultum'' enabling his appointment;
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::'''2'''. This Constitution may be amended by a ''Lex'' passed by the ''comitia centuriata'' and approved by a vote of two-thirds of the Senate.
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::'''3'''. No one shall suffer:
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:::'''a'''. a penalty for an action which was not subject to a penalty when the action was performed. If an action was subject to a penalty when the action was performed but is no longer subject to any penalty, no penalty shall be applied for that action.
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:::'''b'''. a greater penalty for an action than the penalty which was applicable when the action was taken. If an action was subject to a penalty when the action was performed but is now subject to a lesser penalty, the lesser penalty shall be applicable for that action.
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:'''B'''. Legal precedence. This Constitution shall be the highest legal authority within Nova Roma, apart from edicts issued by a legally appointed ''dictator''. It shall thereafter be followed in legal authority by ''edicta'' issued by consuls acting under the ''Senatus consulta ultima'', laws properly voted and passed by one of the ''comitia'', ''decreta'' passed by the ''collegium pontificum'', ''decreta'' passed by the ''collegium augurum'', ''Senatus consulta'', and magisterial ''edicta'' (in order of descending authority as described in section IV of this Constitution), in that order.  Should a lower authority conflict with a higher authority, the higher authority shall take precedence.  Should a law passed by one of the ''comitia'' contradict one passed by another or the same ''comitia'' without explicitly superseding that law, the most recent law shall take precedence.
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:'''C'''. This Constitution shall serve as the bylaws for Nova Roma, a legally incorporated entity in the state of Maine, USA (hereafter referred to as "the corporation"). The conduct and procedures of the Board of Directors and the officers of the corporation shall be according to the guidelines and strictures set forth in this Constitution.  The Board of Directors of the corporation shall be composed of the Senate of Nova Roma (as described in Section V of this Constitution), and the officers of the corporation shall be composed of the magistrates of Nova Roma (as described in Section IV of this Constitution), as follows:
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::'''1'''. The co-presidents of the corporation shall be the consuls of Nova Roma;
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::'''2'''. The co-vice-presidents of the corporation shall be the praetors of Nova Roma;
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::'''3'''. The co-treasurers of the corporation shall be the quaestors of Nova Roma;
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::'''4'''. The co-secretaries of the corporation shall be the censors of Nova Roma.
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:'''D'''. This Constitution may be altered by law passed by the ''comitia centuriata''; such alterations to this Constitution must be ratified by a vote of two-thirds of the entire Senate before they shall take effect.  The ''edicta'' of an appointed  Dictator may also alter this Constitution, subject to ratification by the Senate.
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:'''E'''. The use of male pronouns and technical terms within this Constitution is done solely for clarity, and shall not be construed to imply any disparity between genders before the law.
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===II. Citizens and ''Gentes''===
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:'''A'''. Citizenship
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::'''1'''. Any person 18 years old or older may apply for Citizenship.
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::'''2'''. Citizens may apply for Citizenship on behalf of their children or legal wards (as defined by relevant macronational law) under the age of 18. Such Citizens shall be known as ''impuberes''.
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::'''3'''. Citizenship is open to anyone regardless of ethnic heritage, gender, religious affiliation, or sexual orientation.
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::'''4'''. Citizenship may be involuntarily revoked by those means that shall be established by law, or may be voluntarily relinquished by notification of the censors or by public statement before three or more witnesses.
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::'''5'''. ''Impuberes'' may have their Citizenship relinquished on their behalf by their parent or legal guardian (as defined by relevant macronational law) by notification of the censors or by public statement before three or more witnesses.
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:'''B'''. The following rights of the Citizens who have reached the age of 18 shall be guaranteed, but this enumeration shall not be taken to exclude other rights that citizens may possess:
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::'''1'''. Complete authority over their own personal and household rites, rituals, and beliefs, pagan or otherwise; except where this  Constitution mandates participation in the rites of the ''Religio Romana'', such as the case of magistrates and Senators;
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::'''2'''. The right and obligation to remain subject to the civil rights and laws of the countries in which they reside and/or hold citizenship, regardless of their status as dual citizens of Nova Roma;
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::'''3'''. The right to vote in elections as members of their various ''comitia'' on matters brought before the People in such manner as described in this Constitution;
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::'''4'''. The right to participate in all public fora and discussions, and the right to reasonably expect such fora to be supported by the State.  Such communications, regardless of their content, may not be restricted by the State, except where they represent an imminent and clear danger to the Republic. Such officially sponsored fora may be expected to be reasonably moderated in the interests of maintaining order and civility;
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::'''5'''. The right of ''provocatio''; to appeal a decision of a magistrate that has a direct negative impact upon that citizen to the ''comitia populi tributa'';
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::'''6'''. The right to privacy; security in one's home, person, and property; and authority over one's home, person, and property. Homes may not be searched, persons may not be detained, and property may not be seized, except by judicial ruling or by a special provision of law;
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::'''7'''. The right to seek and receive assistance and advice from the State in matters of religious and social disputes occurring both within and outside the direct jurisdiction of Nova Roma; and,
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::'''8'''. The right to pursue business enterprises within Nova Roma through the institution of the ''ordo equester'' (equestrian order), and the right to receive reasonable encouragement to build a strong economy through Roman-oriented commerce; the only restrictions being those informational and other materials copyrighted by the State, which shall remain the property of the State.
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:'''C'''. The Orders. Even though members of the three orders are equal under the eyes of the law, the institution of the orders is significant enough that it is perpetuated in Nova Roma. There are three orders into which all Citizens fall:
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::'''1'''. ''Ordo Patricius'' (patrician order)
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:::'''a'''. The ''Ordo Patricius'' shall consist of a minimum of 30 families.
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:::'''b'''. Should there be fewer than 30 patrician families the Senate shall have the power to nominate a plebeian family to the ''Comitia Curiata'' for elevation to patrician status.
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:::'''c'''. The Senate shall have the power to nominate additional families to the ''Comitia Curiata'' for elevation to patrician status if this elevation does not cause the ''Ordo Patricius'' to exceed 5% of the population of Nova Roma.
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:::'''d'''. A patrician family may allow its members to form new patrician families.
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::'''2'''. ''Ordo equester'' (equestrian order). The Equestrian Order shall consist of high standing citizens who excel in their service to the Res Publica. Equestrians shall be enrolled into the Ordo Equester as specified by laws approved by the Comitia. <small>(1)</small>
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::'''3'''. ''Ordo plebeius'' (plebeian order). The plebeian order shall consist of individuals who do not belong to either the patrician or equestrian orders.
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:'''D'''. ''Gentes'', ''Domus'', and ''Familiae''. ''Familiae'' (households) being the backbone of Roman society, the prerogatives and responsibilities of the ''familia'' are of primary importance to Nova Roma. Except where specifically dealt with in this constitution and the law, each ''familia'' shall have the right to determine its own course of action and parents shall have the undisputed right and responsibility to see to the education and raising of their children.
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::'''1'''. Each ''gens'' (clan) shall be registered with the censors, who will maintain records of ''gens'' membership and other relevant information.
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::'''2'''. No two ''gentes'' may have the same ''nomen''. The censors shall be responsible for ensuring this rule is observed.
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::'''3'''. Each ''gens'' shall consist of a minimum of one ''domus'' (lineage).
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::'''4'''. No two ''domus'' within a ''gens'' may have the same ''cognomen'' (surname). The censors shall be responsible for ensuring this rule is observed.
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::'''5'''. Each ''familia'' shall have a ''paterfamilias'' and / or ''materfamilias'' who shall act as the leader(s) of the family and speak for it when necessary. The holder(s) of this position must be registered as such with the censors. The ''paterfamilias'' and / or ''materfamilias'' may, at his, her, or their discretion, expel members of his, her, or their ''familia'', accept new members into it by adoption, or allow members to form new ''familiae'' belonging to the same order.
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:::'''a'''. The ''paterfamilias'' and / or ''materfamilias'' may, at his, her, or their discretion, exercise the rights enumerated in paragraph II.B of this Constitution on behalf of ''impuberes'' in his, her, or their ''familia'', with the exception of the right to vote (paragraph II. B. 3.) and the right to join the ''Ordo Equester'' (paragraph II. B. 8.). <small>(2)</small>
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:'''E'''. Tribes and Centuries
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::'''1'''. There shall exist thirty-five tribes, into which the censors shall divide all of the citizens. Thirty-one of these tribes shall be designated the Rural tribes, and shall be assigned by the censors as directed by law passed by the ''comitia populi tributa''. Four of these tribes shall be designated the urban tribes, and shall be made up of those citizens who fail to vote in the annual magisterial elections. Should a member of an urban tribe subsequently vote in an annual magisterial election, he or she shall be reassigned to a rural tribe.
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::'''2'''. There shall exist a number of centuries, said number to be set by law enacted by the ''Comitia Centuriata'' and not to exceed one-hundred ninety-three, into which the censors shall divide all of the citizens.  Until such a law is passed, the number of centuries shall be one-hundred ninety-three. The exact composition of these centuries shall be determined by law passed by the ''comitia centuriata'', but shall be weighted in favor of those citizens who have shown the greatest commitment to Nova Roma.
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===III. ''Comitia''===
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:'''A'''. The ''comitia curiata'' (Assembly of ''Curiae'') shall be made up of thirty ''lictores curiati'' (lictors of the ''curia''), appointed to their positions by the ''collegium pontificum'' (college of pontiffs).  It shall be called to order by the ''Pontifex Maximus'', and the ''collegium pontificum'' shall set the rules by which the ''comitia curiata'' shall operate internally.  It shall have the following responsibilities:
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::'''1'''. To invest elected and appointed magistrates with ''Imperium'' (which is necessary to employ ''coercitio'' [the power to compel obedience to their edicts], interpret and execute law, and possess the honor of being preceded by lictors as a symbol of office), without right of refusal individually or as a body;
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::'''2'''. To witness the appointment of official priests and priestesses of the ''Religio Romana'', adoptions, and the recording of wills.
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::'''3'''. To approve or reject the elevation of a plebeian family to the ''Ordo Patricius'';
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::'''4'''. To approve or reject an adoption that elevates a plebeian to the ''Ordo Patricius'' or lowers a patrician to the ''Ordo Plebeius'';
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::'''5'''. To approve or reject an application from a patrician who wishes to renounce his status and become a member of the plebeian order.
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:'''B'''. The ''Comitia Centuriata'' (Assembly of Centuries) shall be made up of all of the citizens, grouped into their respective centuries. While it shall be called to order by either a consul or a praetor, only the ''comitia centuriata'' shall pass laws governing the rules by which it shall operate internally. It shall have the following powers:
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::'''1'''. To enact laws binding upon the entire citizenry;
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::'''2'''. To elect the consuls, praetors, and censors;
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::'''3'''. To try legal cases in which the defendant is subject to permanent removal of citizenship.
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:'''C'''. The ''Comitia Plebis Tributa'' (Assembly of the Plebeians) shall be made up of all non-patrician citizens, grouped into their respective tribes. While it shall be called to order by a tribune of the ''plebs'', only the ''comitia plebis tributa'' shall pass laws governing the rules by which it shall operate internally. It shall have the following powers:
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::'''1'''. To enact plebiscites with the force of law, binding upon the entire citizenry;
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::'''2'''. To elect the plebeian aediles and tribunes of the ''plebs'';
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::'''3'''. To try legal cases solely involving members of the plebeian order that do not involve permanent removal of citizenship.
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:'''D'''. The ''Comitia Populi Tributa'' (Assembly of the People) shall be made up of all citizens, grouped into their respective tribes. While it shall be called to order by either a consul or a praetor, only the ''comitia populi tributa'' shall pass laws governing the rules by which it shall operate internally. It shall have the following powers:
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::'''1'''. To enact laws binding upon the entire citizenry;
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::'''2'''. To elect the quaestors and curule aediles;
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::'''3'''. To try legal cases that do not involve permanent removal of citizenship.
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===IV. Magistrates.===
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Magistrates are the elected and appointed officials responsible for the maintenance and conduct of the affairs of state. There are two categories of magistrates: ''ordinarii'' (those who are ordinarily elected) and ''extraordinarii'' (those who are only occasionally appointed or elected). Qualifications necessary to hold these positions may be enacted by law properly passed by one of the ''comitia''.
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:'''A'''. Should an office in mid-term become vacant and suitable candidates be at hand, an election shall be held in the appropriate comitia to elect a successor to serve out the remainder of the term within thirty days of the vacancy. Should one of the ordinarii be found to be derelict in his duties, that magistrate may be removed by a law originating in the comitia that elected him. Elections of the ordinarii shall take place every civil year no later than November 20th for the plebeian offices and no later than December 15th for the curule magistracies and other elected officials. Newly elected Quaestores will assume office on December 5th, the tribuni plebis and aediles plebis shall enter their offices on December 10, all other officials shall enter their offices on the following Kalends of January. Anyone currently serving in an elected or appointed office may complete their term and enter their newly elected office on or after January 1. Exceptions to these provisions regarding elections may be found in section V of this Constitution. The ordinarii, in decreasing order of authority, are as follows: <small>(3)</small>
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::'''1'''. ''Censor''. Two censors shall be elected by the ''comitia centuriata'' to serve a term lasting two years, to be elected in alternate years so as to have a one-year overlap of terms. They shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
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:::'''a'''. To issue those ''edicta'' (edicts) necessary to carry out those tasks in which they are mandated by this Constitution and the law to engage (such edicts being binding upon themselves as well as others);
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:::'''b'''. To maintain the ''album civium'' (list of citizens), including the tribe and century to which they are assigned as described by law, and other appropriate information regarding them;
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:::'''c'''. To maintain the ''album gentium'' (list of ''gentes'') and appropriate information regarding them;
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:::'''d'''. To maintain the ''album senatorum'' (list of Senators), including the power to add and remove names on that list according to qualifications set by law;
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:::'''e'''. To maintain the ''album equestrium'' (lists of members of the equestrian order), including the power to add and remove names on that list;
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:::'''f'''. To safeguard the public morality and honor through the collegial administering of ''notae'';
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::::'''1'''. A ''nota'' against an ordinary individual is sufficient to deprive that individual of the right to vote until such time as it is removed;
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::::'''2'''. A ''nota'' against a member of the Senate is sufficient to remove that individual from the Senate until such time as it is removed.
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:::'''g'''. To appoint ''scribae'' (clerks) to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.
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::'''2'''. ''Consul''. Two consuls shall be elected annually by the ''comitia centuriata'' to serve a term lasting one year. They shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
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:::'''a'''. To hold ''Imperium'' and have the honor of being preceded by twelve lictors;
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:::'''b'''. To issue those ''edicta'' (edicts) necessary to engage in those tasks which advance the mission and function of Nova Roma (such edicts being binding upon themselves as well as others);
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:::'''c'''. To call the Senate, the ''comitia centuriata'', and the ''comitia populi tributa'' to order;
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:::'''d'''. To pronounce ''intercessio'' (intercession; a veto) against another ''consul'' or magistrate of lesser authority;
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:::'''e'''. To appoint ''accensi'' (personal assistants) to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.
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::'''3'''. ''Praetor''. Two praetors shall be elected by the ''Comitia Centuriata'' to serve a term lasting one year. They shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
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:::'''a'''. To hold ''Imperium'' and have the honor of being preceded by six lictors;
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:::'''b'''. To issue those ''edicta'' (edicts) necessary to engage in those tasks which advance the mission and function of Nova Roma and to administer the law (such edicts being binding upon themselves as well as others);
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:::'''c'''. To call the Senate, the ''comitia centuriata'', and the ''comitia populi tributa'' to order when the Consuls are unavailable;
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:::'''d'''. To pronounce ''intercessio'' against another praetor or magistrate of lesser authority;
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:::'''e'''. To appoint ''scribae'' (clerks) to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.
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::'''4'''. ''Aediles Curules'' (Curule Aediles). Two curule aediles shall be elected by the ''comitia populi tributa'' to serve a term lasting one year. They shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
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:::'''a'''. To hold ''Imperium'';
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:::'''b'''. To issue those ''edicta'' (edicts) necessary to see to the conduct of public games and other festivals and gatherings, to ensure order at public religious events, to see to the maintenance of any real public facilities that the State should acquire, and to administer the law (such edicts being binding upon themselves as well as others);
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:::'''c'''. To pronounce ''intercessio'' against another aedile (curule or plebeian) or magistrate of lesser authority;
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:::'''d'''. To appoint ''scribae'' (clerks) to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.
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:::'''e'''. To maintain the venues where the ''Ordo Equester'' is engaged in commerce within Nova Roma property. It is the responsibility of the Curule Aediles to report any changes of the ''Ordo Equester'' to the Censors.
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::'''5'''. ''Aediles plebis'' (Plebeian Aedile). Two plebeian aediles shall be elected by the ''comitia plebis tributa'' to serve a term lasting one year. They must both be of the plebeian order and shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
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:::'''a'''. To issue those ''edicta'' (edicts) necessary to see to the conduct of public games and other festivals and gatherings, to ensure order at public religious events, to see to the maintenance of any real public facilities that the State should acquire, and to administer the law (such edicts being binding upon themselves as well as others);
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:::'''b'''. To pronounce ''intercessio'' against another plebeian aedile or magistrate of lesser authority;
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:::'''c'''. To appoint ''scribae'' (clerks) to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.
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::'''6'''. ''Quaestor''. A number of quaestors shall be elected by the ''comitia populi tributa'' equal to the number of consuls, praetors, and aediles to serve a term lasting one year. One quaestor shall be assigned to each of these magistrates by mutual agreement or, if such cannot be made, by decision of the newly-elected consuls. They shall have the power and obligation to administer those funds that shall be allocated to them by the Senate in its annual budget under the supervision of that magistrate to whom they are assigned. Those quaestors assigned directly to the consuls shall supervise the whole of the ''aerarium'' (treasury), but no funds may be spent without the prior approval of the Senate.
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::'''7'''. ''Tribuni Plebis'' (Tribune of the ''Plebs''). Five tribunes of the ''plebs'' shall be elected by the ''comitia plebis tributa'' to serve a term lasting one year. They must all be of the plebeian order, and shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
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:::'''a'''. To pronounce ''intercessio'' (intercession; a veto) against the actions of any other magistrate (with the exception of the ''dictator'' and the ''interrex''), ''Senatus consulta'', magisterial ''edicta'', religious ''decreta'', and ''leges'' passed by the ''comitia'' when the spirit and / or letter of this Constitution or legally-enacted ''edicta'' or ''decreta'', ''Senatus Consulta'' or ''leges'' are being violated thereby; once a pronouncement of ''intercessio'' has been made, the other Tribunes may, at their discretion, state either their support for or their disagreement with that ''intercessio''.
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::::'''1'''. Each Tribune may issue only one such declaration of support or disagreement, but may change their declaration from one to the other, should they wish to do so.
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::::'''2'''. The initial pronouncement of ''intercessio'' by a Tribune shall count as that Tribune's declaration of agreement.
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::::'''3'''. Should the number or the Tribunes who choose to disagree with an ''intercessio'' equal or exceed the number of Tribunes who choose to support it, the ''intercessio'' shall be revoked.
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:::::'''a''' ''Intercessio'' may not be imposed against statements of support for or disagreement with a use of ''intercessio'' that are issued pursuant to the preceding paragraph.
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:::::'''b''' The issuance and function of ''intercessio'' shall be defined according to procedures described by legislation passed by ''Comitia''.
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:::'''b'''. To pronounce ''intercessio'' (intercession; a veto) against another Tribune using the same mechanism as described in paragraph IV. A. 7. a. above;
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:::'''c'''. To be immune from ''intercessio'' pronounced by other magistrates, except as described in paragraphs IV. A. 7 .a. and IV. A. 7. b. above;
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:::'''d'''. To be privy to the debates of the Senate, and keep the citizens informed as to the subjects and results thereof, in such manner and subject to such restrictions as may be defined by law;
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::::'''1''' To call the Senate to order;
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::::'''2'''. To call the ''comitia plebis tributa'' to order, except when the Patrician order shall constitute more than ten percent (10%) of the total population, in which case the power shall be altered to calling the ''comitia populi tributa'' to order;
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::::'''3'''. To administer the law;
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::::'''4'''. To appoint ''scribae'' (clerks) to assist with administrative and other tasks, as they shall see fit.
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::'''8'''. ''Vigintisexviri'' (The Twenty-Six). Collectively, the Twenty-Six shall be minor magistrates elected to fulfill those necessary functions as shall be assigned to them by law enacted by one of the ''comitia''.
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::'''9'''. ''Apparitores'' (Attendants). Collectively, the ''apparitores'' shall not be considered magistrates, but rather shall be appointed into various ''decuriae'' (corporations) to fulfill those necessary functions as shall be assigned to them by law enacted by one of the ''comitia''. They shall include the ''lictores'', ''lictores curiati'', ''scribae'', and ''accensi''.
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:'''B'''. The ''extraordinarii'' are as follows:
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::'''1'''. ''Dictator''. In times of emergency, the Senate may appoint a ''dictator'' to serve a term not to exceed six months.  At the time of such appointment, the Senate may prescribe a given task or boundaries within which the ''dictator'' is obliged to remain. The edicts of the ''dictator'' are absolute within his sphere of influence, and subject to neither ''intercessio'' or ''provocatio''. The ''dictator'' shall hold ''Imperium'' and have the honor of being preceded by twenty-four lictors. At the end of his term the actions of the ''dictator'' shall be subject to final confirmation by the Senate.
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::'''2'''. ''Interrex''. Should both consular positions be vacant at the same time, the Senate shall appoint an ''Interrex'' to serve a term lasting no more than five days. The ''Interrex'' must be a member of the patrician order, and shall have all the powers and responsibilities of a normally elected ''consul''. The ''Interrex'' shall organize new elections in the ''comitia centuriata'' to elect two new consuls to serve out the remainder of the previous consuls' term of office.
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===V. The Senate===
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The supreme policy-making authority for Nova Roma shall be embodied in its Senate. The ''album Senatorum'' (list of Senators) shall be maintained by the censors according to qualifications set by law. The Senate shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
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:'''A'''. As the repository of experience and wisdom in the affairs of State, the Senate shall have the authority to issue ''Senatus consulta'' (advice of the Senate) on those topics upon which it shall see fit to comment.
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:'''B'''. The Senate shall exercise control over the ''aerarium'' (treasury) and shall oversee the financial endeavors, health, and policy of the state.
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::'''1'''. No later than the last day of November of each year, the Senate shall prepare a budget for the following year. This budget shall deal with the disbursement of funds from the ''aerarium'' to the quaestors for various purposes. Even though the quaestors assigned to the consuls shall be responsible for the maintenance of the entire treasury, no funds from it may be disbursed without the prior approval of the Senate. The Senate may, as required by changing circumstances, pass supplemental ''Senatus consulta'' to modify the annual budget.
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::'''2'''. The Senate may, by ''Senatus consultum'', impose taxes, fees, or other financial requirements on the citizens in order to maintain the financial welfare of the state.
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:'''C'''. The Senate may, by ''Senatus Consultum'', create ''provinciae'' for administrative purposes and appoint provincial governors therefor, who shall bear such titles as the Senate may deem appropriate. The Senate may review each governor on a yearly basis and it remains in the discretion of the Senate whether or not to prorogue such governors, although this review shall not constitute a ban on the authority of the Senate to remove governors from office as its discretion. Governors shall have the following honors, powers, and obligations:
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::'''1'''. To hold ''imperium'' and have the honor of being preceded by six lictors solely within the jurisdiction of their respective ''provinciae'';
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::'''2'''. To proclaim those ''edicta'' (edicts) necessary to engage in those tasks which advance the mission and function of Nova Roma, solely within the jurisdiction of their ''provinciae'' (such edicts being binding upon themselves as well as others);
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::'''3'''. To manage the day-to-day organization and administration of their ''provinciae'';
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::'''4'''. To appoint officers to whom authority may be delegated, subject to those restrictions and standards as the Senate shall deem appropriate;
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::'''5'''. To remove officers whom they have appointed, or make changes to their titles and/or delegated authority, subject to those restrictions and standards as the Senate shall deem appropriate.
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:'''D'''. Should a magistrate's office become vacant during the course of his term, the Senate may appoint a replacement to serve out the remainder of the term should there be less than three months remaining therein.
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:'''E'''. The Senate shall have the power to issue the Senatus ''consultum ultimum'' (the ultimate decree of the Senate). When in effect, this decree will supersede all other governmental bodies and authorities (with the exception of the ''dictator'') and allow the Senate to invest the consuls with absolute powers to deal with a specific situation, subject only to their collegial veto and review by the Senate. Even under the authority of the ''Senatus consultum ultimum'', the consuls may only temporarily suspend this Constitution; they may not enact any permanent changes hereto.
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:'''F'''. The Senate may, by ''Senatus consultum'', enact rules governing its own internal procedures (such ''Senatus consulta'' may not be overruled by laws passed in the ''comitia'').
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===VI. Public Religious Institutions===
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:'''A'''. The Religio Romana, the worship of the Gods and Goddesses of Rome, shall be the official religion of Nova Roma. All magistrates and Senators, as officers of the State, shall be required to publicly show respect for the Religio Romana and the Gods and Goddesses that made Rome great. Magistrates, Senators, and citizens need not be practitioner of the Religio Romana, but may not engage in any activity that intentionally blasphemes or defames the Gods, Goddesses, the Religio Romana, or its practitioners. Nova Roma shall approach all other religions with a syncretistic outlook, offering friendship to all paths which acknowledge the right of those who practice and honor the Religio Romana to do so and respect the beliefs thereof. While the Colleges of the Religio Romana shall manage the religious activities of the state in the manner they see fit, they are subject to oversight by the corporate Board of Directors of Nova Roma, which is the ultimate authority.
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:'''B'''. The priesthoods of the Gods and Goddesses of Rome shall be organized as closely as practical on the ancient Roman model. The institutions of the Religio Romana shall have authority over public religious matters, maintain the religious rites of the State and shall provide resources so that the citizenry may be informed as well as be prepared to assume positions within the priesthood. Only Citizens of Nova Roma may be members of the public institutions of the Religio Romana, which shall be organized, and have their responsibilities divided, as follows:
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::'''1'''. The Collegium Pontificum (College of Pontiffs) shall be the highest ranked of the priestly Collegia. It shall consist of the Pontifex Maximus, up to fourteen Pontifices, a maximum of twelve Flamines, a maximum of six Sacerdotes Vestales, and the Rex and Regina Sacrorum. The members of the Collegium Pontificum shall hold their offices for a specified period of time as established by the law, The individuals who make up the fourteen (14) Pontifices and the twelve (12) Flamines shall be elected by the People of Nova Roma in the Comitia Populi Tributa. The Pontiffs and Flamines shall be elected and regular re-elections shall be established by law. The Collegeium Pontificum shall have the following powers and responsibilities:
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:::'''a'''. To control the calendar, and determine when the festivals, dies fasti, and dies nefasti shall occur, and what their effects shall be, within the boundaries of the example of ancient Rome;
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:::'''b'''. To have ritual responsibilities within the Religio Romana; and general authority over the institutions, rites, rituals, and priesthoods of the public Religio Romana;
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:::'''c'''. To issue decreta (decrees) on matters relevant to the Religio Romana and its own internal procedures, consistent with paragraph A, above. Such decreta may not be overruled by a Comitia or the Senate unless it is determined they are unconstitutional or in violation of the laws of the State of Maine.
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:::'''d'''. To serve the needs of the community, be involved in the community and promote the growth of the Religio Romana, both within the organization and outside of Nova Roma.
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:::'''e'''. To conduct research and contribute to the greater knowledgebase of the Religio Romana and how it can be practiced, conducted and to educate the citizens of its role and importance. <small>(4)</small>
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::'''2'''. The ''Collegium Augurum'' (College of Augurs) shall be the second-highest ranked of the priestly ''Collegia''.  The eldest member of the ''Collegium'' shall be the ''Magister Collegii''. The ''Collegium Augurum'' shall consist of nine Augurs, five from the Plebeian order and four from the Patrician order. They shall be appointed by the ''Collegium Pontificum'', and shall hold their offices for life, excepting in cases of resignation of office, resignation of citizenship, or loss of ''Assiduus'' citizenship by process of law.  Resignation of office or citizenship by an Augur must be made in writing to the ''Pontifex Maximus'' and the ''Magister Collegii''; the ''Pontifex Maximus'' and ''Magister Collegii'' shall be informed in writing of any process of law by which such an ''Augur'' has lost citizenship.  Augurs who have resigned their office, resigned their citizenship, or have lost their citizenship by process of law shall remain ''sacri'' in their persons but may exercise no augural powers or functions, nor shall they be accounted members of the ''Collegium Augurum''.
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:::'''a'''. The ''collegium augurum'' shall have the following honors, powers, and responsibilities:
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::::'''1'''. To research, practice, and uphold the ''ars auguria'' (the art of interpreting divine signs and omens, solicited or otherwise);
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::::'''2'''. To issue ''decreta'' (decrees) on matters of the ''ars auguria'' and its own internal procedures (such ''decreta'' may not be overruled by laws passed in the ''comitia'' or ''Senatus consultum'').
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:::'''b'''. Individual augurs shall have the following honors, powers, and responsibilities:
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::::'''1'''. To define ''templum'' (sacred space) and celebrate ''auguria'' (the rites of augury);
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::::'''2'''. To declare ''obnuntiatio'' (a declaration that unfavorable and unsolicited omens have been observed that justify a delay of a meeting of one of the ''comitia'' or the Senate).
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::'''3'''. Other institutions and priesthoods may be instituted, and the rules for such set, by the ''collegium pontificum'', in accordance with the ancient models of the ''Religio Romana'' as practiced by our spiritual ancestors.
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==Notes==
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'''1'''. The current version of paragraph II.C.2 comes from lex Cornelia de rebus ordinis equestres
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voted in comitia centuriata on 18 Jul 2766 and ratified by the Senate on 24 Oct 2766 auc.
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<br>
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'''2'''. The current version of whole paragraph II.D comes from lex Equitia de gentibus, voted in comitia centuriata on 21 Sep 2757 auc and ratified by the Senate on 15 Oct 2757 auc.
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<br>
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'''3'''. The current version of paragraph IV.A, not including the subsections, comes from lex Cornelia de constitutione corrigenda segunda, voted in comitia centuriata on 29 Dec 2766 and ratified by the Senate on 09 Jan 2767 auc.
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'''4'''. The current version of paragraphs VI.A and VI.B, not including VI.B.2 and its subsections, comes from lex Cornelia de constitutione corrigenda, voted in comitia centuriata on 06 Sep 2766 and ratified by the Senate on 05 Sep 2766 auc.
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</div>
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Latest revision as of 21:33, 8 January 2021

  1. REDIRECT Lex Equitia de constitutione corrigenda (Nova Roma)
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