Roman religion

From NovaRoma
(Difference between revisions)
Jump to: navigation, search
m (Roman religion moved to Religião Romana: title translation)
 
(16 intermediate revisions by 5 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
{{LanguageBar|Roman religion}}
 
{{LanguageBar|Roman religion}}
  
The '''''cultus deorum Romanorum''''' ('cults of the Roman gods') is a collective term for the various cults and rituals which constituted the religious life of Rome until the edict of Theodosius in 390 C.E. barring public cult.  
+
 
 +
 +
[[Image:romangods-banner.png|center]]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
----
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
The '''''[[cultus deorum Romanorum]]''''' ('cults of the [[Roman gods]]') is a collective term for the various cults and rituals which constituted the religious life of Rome until the edict of Theodosius in 390 C.E. [[Abolition_of_gods|barred public cult]].  
  
 
==Variety==
 
==Variety==
  
<!-- EDITORS Do not put any ref tags inside the ONLYINCLUDE tags. --><onlyinclude>It is difficult to talk about Roman religion as a whole, since it is really composed of a large number of separate cults. In this sense there are many Roman religions. A number of specific terms are in use that let us focus on specific aspects of this large whole. Most inclusively, "Roman religion" could mean any religious belief or practice that was held or performed by any person who ever held [[Roman citizenship]]. In addition to the traditional state and private cults, this includes such "[[foreign cults]]" as Judaism, early Christianity, various Egyptian cults and much more. Also included would be [[mystery cults]] that catered to the individual as well as fraternal ''[[collegia]]''</onlyinclude>.<ref name="rupke">Rupke, Jörg "Religion of the Romans"(ISBN  0745630154)</ref>
+
<!-- EDITORS Do not put any ref tags inside the ONLYINCLUDE tags. --><onlyinclude>It is difficult to talk about [[Roman religion]] as a whole, since it is really composed of a large number of separate cults. In this sense there are many Roman religions. A number of specific terms are in use that let us focus on specific aspects of this large whole. Most inclusively, "'''Roman religion'''" could mean any religious belief or practice that was held or performed by any person who ever held Roman citizenship. In addition to the traditional '''''sacra publica''''' (state cults) and '''''sacra privata''''' (private cults), this includes such "'''[[foreign cults]]'''" as Judaism, early Christianity, various Egyptian cults and much more. Also included would be '''[[mystery cults]]''' that catered to the individual and the many fraternal '''''[[collegia]]'''''.</onlyinclude><ref name="rupke">Rupke, Jörg "Religion of the Romans"(ISBN  0745630154)</ref>
  
 
==="Numa Tradition"===
 
==="Numa Tradition"===
  
Romans themselves identified certain aspects of their religion, the [[Numa tradition]], as embodying important attitudes and practices which they sometimes turned to in times of stress. Cicero wrote, "I am quite certain that Romulus by instituting auspices, and [[Numa tradition|Numa]] ritual, laid the foundations of our state, which would never have been able to be so great had not the immortal gods been placated to the utmost extent." <ref>[[Marcus Tullius Cicero|Cicero]] "On the Nature of the Gods"</ref>
+
Romans themselves identified certain aspects of their religion, the so-called "[[Numa tradition]]", as embodying important attitudes and practices which they sometimes turned to in times of stress. Cicero<ref name="natura_deorum">[[Marcus Tullius Cicero|Cicero]] "On the Nature of the Gods"</ref>wrote, "I am quite certain that Romulus by instituting auspices, and Numa ritual, laid the foundations of our state, which would never have been able to be so great had not the immortal gods been placated to the utmost extent."{{cite|translation}}
  
 
===''Sacra Publica''===
 
===''Sacra Publica''===
  
Influenced by their Etruscan, Greek and Phonecian neighbors, the Romans developed a complex state religion that emphasised the patron - client relationship between the gods and Romans: the ''pax deorum ''(''[[religio]]'') and maintained it by scrupulous observance of [[:Category:Ritus|rituals]]. <ref name="scheid">Scheid, J., An Introduction to Roman Religion (ISBN 0253343771)</ref> This is the "''[[sacra publica]]''" and it was concerned with the state as a whole, not with regulating the specific beliefs or practices of individual citizens.
+
Influenced by their Etruscan, Greek and Phonecian neighbors, the Romans developed a complex state religion that emphasised the patron - client relationship between the gods and Romans: the ''pax deorum ''(''[[religio]]'') and maintained it by scrupulous observance of [[:Category:Ritus|rituals]]. <ref name="scheid">{{Scheid}}</ref>This is the "''[[sacra publica]]''" and it was concerned with the state as a whole, not with regulating the specific beliefs or practices of individual citizens.
  
 
===''Sacra Privata''===
 
===''Sacra Privata''===
Line 19: Line 28:
 
The term "''[[sacra privata]]''" refers to the relationships, practices and traditions with the gods of individuals and families.  
 
The term "''[[sacra privata]]''" refers to the relationships, practices and traditions with the gods of individuals and families.  
  
===Roles===
+
===Foreign Cults===
  
There were many diverse roles in the Roman tradition. Religious specialists such as ''sacerdotes'', ''flamines'', ''pontifices'' and ''augures'' advised magistrates on point of ritual and law.<ref name="rupke"/> The paterfamilias in his home and the magistrates in public normally performed religious rituals.
+
 
 +
===Mystery Cults===
 +
 
 +
 
 +
===''Collegia''===
 +
 
 +
 
 +
==Roles==
 +
 
 +
There were many diverse roles in the Roman tradition. Religious specialists such as ''[[sacerdotes]]'', ''[[flamines]]'', ''[[pontifices]]'' and ''[[augures]]'' advised [[magistrates]] on point of ritual and law.<ref name="rupke"/>The paterfamilias in his home and the magistrates in public normally performed religious rituals.
  
 
==Beliefs and attitudes==
 
==Beliefs and attitudes==
  
Romans believed the gods were benevolent and respected the social code of the city. They abhorred ''superstitio'' which was a belief that the gods were vengeful, jealous and the attendant excessive and slavish behavior to placate them.<ref name="scheid"/> [[Varro]] said, "The religious man reveres the Gods as he would his parents, for they are good, more apt to spare than to punish" and "The Gods do not want sacrifice, their statues even less."  
+
Romans believed the gods were benevolent and respected the social code of the city. They abhorred ''superstitio'' which was a belief that the gods were vengeful, jealous and the attendant excessive and slavish behavior to placate them.<ref name="scheid"/>[[Varro]] said, "The religious man reveres the Gods as he would his parents, for they are good, more apt to spare than to punish" and "The Gods do not want sacrifice, their statues even less."{{cite}}
  
 
A perfunctory performance of a ritual, without any feeling, was simply not acceptable. Even Cicero, known for his cynical attitudes toward religion, speaks to the requirement of mental attitude in approaching the Gods, and that material gifts are less important <ref>Cicero: De Legibus 2.8.19; 2.10.24</ref>.
 
A perfunctory performance of a ritual, without any feeling, was simply not acceptable. Even Cicero, known for his cynical attitudes toward religion, speaks to the requirement of mental attitude in approaching the Gods, and that material gifts are less important <ref>Cicero: De Legibus 2.8.19; 2.10.24</ref>.
  
Cicero also cites the stoic philosopher Q. Lucilius Balbus' opinion about the cultus deorum:
+
Cicero also cites the stoic philosopher Q. Lucilius Balbus' opinion about the ''cultus deorum'':
"''Quos deos et venerari et colere debemus, cultus autem deorum est optumus idemque castissimus atque sanctissimus plenissimusque pietatis, ut eos semper pura integra incorrupta et mente et voce veneremur. Non enim philosophi solum verum etiam maiores nostri superstitionem a religione separaverunt.''" <ref>Cicero de Natura deorum, II, 71</ref> ("We must revere and worship the gods, and the best "cultus doerum" is the most sacred, the most holy and the most full of dutifulness, in order to adorn them always with pure, whole and uncorrupted mind and word. Not only the philosophers but also our ancestors divided the superstitio from the religio.")
+
"''Quos deos et venerari et colere debemus, cultus autem deorum est optumus idemque castissimus atque sanctissimus plenissimusque pietatis, ut eos semper pura integra incorrupta et mente et voce veneremur. Non enim philosophi solum verum etiam maiores nostri superstitionem a religione separaverunt.''" <ref name="natura_deorum"/>{{rp|(II, 71)}} ("We must revere and worship the gods, and the best "cultus doerum" is the most sacred, the most holy and the most full of dutifulness, in order to adorn them always with pure, whole and uncorrupted mind and word. Not only the philosophers but also our ancestors divided the ''superstitio'' from the ''religio''.")
  
Roman religion was embedded in Rome's culture.<ref name="rupke"/> Because of this it is difficult to make a clear distinction between culture and religion.   
+
Roman religion was embedded in Rome's culture<ref name="rupke"/>.Because of this it is difficult to make a clear distinction between culture and religion.   
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
Line 41: Line 59:
 
For details on how ''religio'' is practised in [[Nova Roma]], see [[:Category:Religio Romana (Nova Roma)]].
 
For details on how ''religio'' is practised in [[Nova Roma]], see [[:Category:Religio Romana (Nova Roma)]].
  
{{Commercial|Sacred Source|Gaius Curius Saturninus}}
+
==The Roman Pantheon==
 +
 
 +
For more specific information on the Roman Pantheon, see '''[[List of Roman Deities]]'''
 +
 
 +
{{Commercial|Sacred Source}}
 +
 
 
<noinclude>[[Category:Roman religion]]</noinclude>
 
<noinclude>[[Category:Roman religion]]</noinclude>

Latest revision as of 00:01, 7 April 2020

 Home| Latíné | Deutsch | Español | Français | Italiano | Magyar | Português | Română | Русский | English


Romangods-banner.png




The cultus deorum Romanorum ('cults of the Roman gods') is a collective term for the various cults and rituals which constituted the religious life of Rome until the edict of Theodosius in 390 C.E. barred public cult.

Contents

Variety

It is difficult to talk about Roman religion as a whole, since it is really composed of a large number of separate cults. In this sense there are many Roman religions. A number of specific terms are in use that let us focus on specific aspects of this large whole. Most inclusively, "Roman religion" could mean any religious belief or practice that was held or performed by any person who ever held Roman citizenship. In addition to the traditional sacra publica (state cults) and sacra privata (private cults), this includes such "foreign cults" as Judaism, early Christianity, various Egyptian cults and much more. Also included would be mystery cults that catered to the individual and the many fraternal collegia.[1]


"Numa Tradition"

Romans themselves identified certain aspects of their religion, the so-called "Numa tradition", as embodying important attitudes and practices which they sometimes turned to in times of stress. Cicero[2] wrote, "I am quite certain that Romulus by instituting auspices, and Numa ritual, laid the foundations of our state, which would never have been able to be so great had not the immortal gods been placated to the utmost extent."whose translation?

Sacra Publica

Influenced by their Etruscan, Greek and Phonecian neighbors, the Romans developed a complex state religion that emphasised the patron - client relationship between the gods and Romans: the pax deorum (religio) and maintained it by scrupulous observance of rituals. [3] This is the "sacra publica" and it was concerned with the state as a whole, not with regulating the specific beliefs or practices of individual citizens.

Sacra Privata

The term "sacra privata" refers to the relationships, practices and traditions with the gods of individuals and families.

Foreign Cults

Mystery Cults

Collegia

Roles

There were many diverse roles in the Roman tradition. Religious specialists such as sacerdotes, flamines, pontifices and augures advised magistrates on point of ritual and law.[1] The paterfamilias in his home and the magistrates in public normally performed religious rituals.

Beliefs and attitudes

Romans believed the gods were benevolent and respected the social code of the city. They abhorred superstitio which was a belief that the gods were vengeful, jealous and the attendant excessive and slavish behavior to placate them.[3] Varro said, "The religious man reveres the Gods as he would his parents, for they are good, more apt to spare than to punish" and "The Gods do not want sacrifice, their statues even less."citation needed

A perfunctory performance of a ritual, without any feeling, was simply not acceptable. Even Cicero, known for his cynical attitudes toward religion, speaks to the requirement of mental attitude in approaching the Gods, and that material gifts are less important [4] .

Cicero also cites the stoic philosopher Q. Lucilius Balbus' opinion about the cultus deorum: "Quos deos et venerari et colere debemus, cultus autem deorum est optumus idemque castissimus atque sanctissimus plenissimusque pietatis, ut eos semper pura integra incorrupta et mente et voce veneremur. Non enim philosophi solum verum etiam maiores nostri superstitionem a religione separaverunt." [2] (II, 71) ("We must revere and worship the gods, and the best "cultus doerum" is the most sacred, the most holy and the most full of dutifulness, in order to adorn them always with pure, whole and uncorrupted mind and word. Not only the philosophers but also our ancestors divided the superstitio from the religio.")

Roman religion was embedded in Rome's culture[1] .Because of this it is difficult to make a clear distinction between culture and religion.

References

  1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 Rupke, Jörg "Religion of the Romans"(ISBN 0745630154)
  2. 2.1 2.2 Cicero "On the Nature of the Gods"
  3. 3.1 3.2 Scheid, J., (2003) An Introduction to Roman Religion. (J. Lloyd trans.) Indiana University Press: Bloomington & Indianapolis. ISBN 0253216605
  4. Cicero: De Legibus 2.8.19; 2.10.24


As practised in Nova Roma

For details on how religio is practised in Nova Roma, see Category:Religio Romana (Nova Roma).

The Roman Pantheon

For more specific information on the Roman Pantheon, see List of Roman Deities

Related products

Products related to this topic are sold by: Sacred Source.

Personal tools