Nominative

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Latin grammar

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The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

In Latin this is the noun itself without inflexion, in that form as you know it: Tullius, Livia, Cicero, forum, lex, consul are in singular nominatve.

Nominative in plural

The plural of Latin nouns is, however, more difficult. Here are the basic and very general rules for making a plural nominative:

  • If a word ends in "-us", then the plural nominative ends in "-i". Tribunus becomes tribuni.
  • If a word ends in "-a", then the plural nominative ends in "-ae". Provincia becomes provinciae.
  • If a word ends in "-o", then the plural nominative ends in "-ones". Legio becomes legiones.
  • Many other words change their ending to "-es", whose rules are more difficult and are not detailed here. Here are some just for example:
consul in plural nominative becomes consules,
praetor in plural nominative is praetores,
lex is leges,
mos is mores,
virtus is virtutes,
homo is homines.
  • Some common nouns ending in "-us" change to long "-ús" in plural nominative , for example:
magistratus in plural nominative is magistratús,
exercitus in plural nominative is exercitús and so on.
  • Nouns of the neutral gender which often end in "-um" have a plural nominative ending in "-a". So forum becomes fora. Examples with other endings:
ius in plural nominative becomes iura,
caput becomes capita.

Usage in practice

Not only Nova Roman citizens but every educated people use sometimes Latin plurals in the English language, so it is very important to learn some plural forms. You can start it by studying the article about addressing magistrates.


Nominative singular and plural in all declensions

Attention: all neuter nouns have a common plural nominative-accusative form that ends in -a, regardless to their declension group.


First declension Second declension
A-Stem O-Stem
mf
terra, -ae, f
land
mf
tribúnus, -í, m
tribune
n
auspicium, -í, n
auspice
Singular Singular Singular
Nominative terra —— tribúnus —— auspicium ——
Accusative terram –am tribúnum –um auspicium ——
Genitive terrae –ae tribúní –í auspicií –í
Dative terrae –ae tribúnó –ó auspició –ó
Ablative terrá –á tribúnó –ó auspició –ó
Plural Plural Plural
Nominative terrae –ae tribúní –í auspicia –a
Accusative terrás –ás tribúnós –ós auspicia –a
Genitive terrárum –árum tribúnórum –órum auspiciórum –órum
Dative-
Ablative
terrís –ís tribúnís –ís auspiciís –ís


Third declension Fourth declension
Consonant Stem I-Stem U-Stem
mf
léx, légis, f
law
n
iús, iúris, n
right
mf
cívis, -is, mf
citizen
n
mare, -is, n
sea
mf
senátus, -ús, m
senate
n
cornú, -ús, n
horn
Singular Singular Singular Singular Singular Singular
Nominative léx —— iús —— cívis —— mare —— senátus —— cornú ——
Accusative légem –em iús —— cívem –em mare —— senátum –um cornú ——
Genitive légis –is iúris –is cívis –is maris –is senátús –ús cornús –ús
Dative légí –í iúrí –í cíví –í marí –í senát –uí cornú –ú
Ablative lége –e iúre –e cíve –e marí –í senátú –ú cornú –ú
Plural Plural Plural Plural Plural Plural
Nominative-
Accusative
légés –és iúra –a cívés –és maria –ia senátús –ús cornua –ua
Genitive légum –um iúrum –um cívium –ium marium –ium senátuum –uum cornuum –uum
Dative-
Ablative
légibus –ibus iúribus –ibus cívibus –ibus maribus –ibus senátibus –ibus cornibus –ibus


Fifth declension
E-Stem
mf
diés, éí, m
day
Singular
Nominative diés ——
Accusative diem –em
Genitive-
Dative
diéí –éí
Ablative dié –é
Plural
Nominative-
Accusative
diés –és
Genitive diérum –érum
Dative-
Ablative
diébus –ébus
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