Classification of magistracies (Nova Roma)
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Classification of magistracies
Magistracies are the executive offices of Nova Roma. Nova Roman magistracies can be classified in several ways.
Ordinary and extraordinary magistracies
The ordinary magistracies (magistratus ordinarii) are those which are filled every year by regular elections. They are the:
Although the Tribunatus Plebis is not technically classified as a magistracy, in practice it is one of the ordinary magistracies.
Though the Censura in Nova Roma is considered an ordinary magistracy, in the antiquity it was filled only in every five years (in some cases not even then), and their term of office lasted 18 months, therefore it is between the ordinany and the extraordinary magistracies.
The extraordinary magistracies (magistratus extraordinarii) are those which are filled only when they are needed. They are the:
Higher and lower magistracies
The higher magistracies (magistratus maiores) are those which are most senior in rank. They are elected by the highest of the popular assemblies, the comitia centuriata. The higher magistracies, in decreasing order of potestas, are the:
The higher magistracies can also be classified after the degree of auctoritas they have. The higher magistracies, in decreasing order of auctoritas, are the:
The rest are lower magistracies (magistratus minores):
The Tribunatus Plebis is not technically classified as a magistracy, and it would not be correct to regard it as either a higher or a lower magistracy.
The extraordinary magistracies are not classified as either higher or lower magistracies.
Magistracies with and without imperium
Imperium is the highest form of executive power in the republic. The magistratus cum imperio, those magistracies which carry not only potestas but also imperium, in decreasing order of imperium, are the:
The Dictator has an extraordinary imperium which exceeds the power of any of the ordinary magistrates, and could never be held legally responsible for any action during his time in office for any reason.
The power of the Interrex is hard to classify. Logically it ought to be imperium, because the constitutional duty of the Interrex is to preside over the election of the Consules, and this requires the convention of the Comitia Centuriata: only a magistrate with imperium can convene the Comitia Centuriata. However, strong custom prevents the Interrex from exercising the full range of imperium.
Magistracies without imperium mostly have the lesser power of potestas:
The Tribuni Plebis have neither imperium nor potestas but the special power of tribunicia potestas.
Curule and non-curule magistracies
The curule magistracies (magistratus curules) are those whose holders are entitled by virtue of their office to sit on the curule chair (Latin sella curulis), to wear the toga praetexta and being proceeded by lictores and whose descendants are regarded as nobiles. They are the:
The non-curule magistrates are the:
The Tribunatus Plebis, not technically a magistracy at all, is not a curule office.