Magistracies (Nova Roma)
Magistracies are the executive offices of Nova Roma. Central magistrates are the officials elected by the comitia or appointed by the senate responsible for the maintenance and conduct of the affairs of state. The office of governors is a magistracy effective only within the administration of a province. Nova Roman magistracies can be classified in several ways.
Ordinary magistracies of Nova Roma
The ordinary magistracies (magistratus ordinarii) are those which are filled every year by regular elections. They are the:
The consulship is the highest executive magistracy of Nova Roma. The two consules, elected by the comitia centuriata are the presidents of the republic which means that they are the presidents of the corporation of Nova Roma, Inc. As the most powerful chief magistracy of Nova Roma, the consules can convene the comitia to pass legislation, call the senate to enact senatus consulta, issue edicts with administrative instructions and regulation of minor issues. They are the ceremonial commanders-in-chief of the Nova Roman Reenactment Army, and the representatives of the Nova Roman people within the sacra publica of the Roman religion. Each year is named after the two consuls of the year.
The eligibility requirements for the consulship are set by the lex Tullia annalis: only those assidui can be candidates who are at least 40 years old, and have previously held either the office of praetor, or both aedilis and quaestor, or both tribunus plebis and quaestor. The consuls enter office on Kal. Ian. ‡ (1 January) each year. Learn more ...
The praetor is the second highest executive magistrate and vice-president of the Nova Roman Republic (Nova Roma, Inc.). The praetores are considered as lower colleagues and deputies for the consules. There are two praetores in Nova Roma and their principal duty is to fill a secondary leadership role in the government, to oversee and to administer the judicial system of Nova Roma (the conflict resolution system within the organization), to carry our special tasks, be in charge of assigned projects and to represent the citizens who are not part of any province of Nova Roma.
The eligibility requirements for praetor are set by the lex Tullia annalis: only those assidui can be candidates who are at least 30 years old, and have previously held the quaestorship combined with aediliship, or with the tribuneship of the plebs, or with the vigintisexviratus. The praetors enter office on Kal. Ian. ‡ (1 January) each year. Learn more ...
The censorship is the most respected and sacred magistracies of Nova Roma. There are two censores who are elected once in every two-and-a-half years period by the comitia centuriata, and unlike other magistrates, they have a 18 months term of office, however, by tradition, they are expected to step down as soon as they have completed the census. In corporate terminology, the censors are the secretaries of the corporation. The censores have with the highest auctoritas to safeguard the public morality and honor but third in rank after the consules and praetores, because they do not possess imperium, and have no power to convene either the senate or an assembly of the people. Their principal duty of the censors is to conduct the census twice in every five year period, the traditional lustrum, and, as a part of the census, to maintain the register of citizens, equestrians and senators, to classify all citizens according to their merit, to allocate citizens into classes, centuries and tribes, to distribute awards and reprimands, to elevate or remove members of the equestrian order, to appoint and remove members of the senate, and to guard public honor and morality. It is also the censors' job to set the general direction of public works and finances between two censuses, in cooperation with the aediles.
The eligibility requirements for censor are set by the lex Tullia annalis: only those assidui can be candidates who are at least 40 years old, and have previously served as consul. The censores enter office on Kal. Ian. ‡ (1 January) of the year for which they are elected to hold the census, or if they are elected out of order, they enter office as soon as elected. Learn more ...
The most important magistracies regarding the public works and activities of Nova Roma, its cultural mission and function, are the four aediles. Among the four aediles, there are two aediles curules, and two aediles plebis. In corporate terminology, the aediles are the deputy secretaries and culture and community directors of the corporation. All four aediles are collectively responsible for the maintenance of the properties and infrastructure of Nova Roma, the physical and digital assets, the websites, forums and social media platforms, for commerce and for the educational, cultural and religious activities of the res publica, and for the organization of the ludi (public festivals and cultural and educational games), public religious events. The two aediles curules (curule aediles) are considered the more senior position within the aedilician collegium, specifically responsible for the organization of the ludi Novi Romani, ludi Megalenses and the ludi Romani.
The eligibility requirements for aedilis curulis are set by the lex Tullia annalis: only those assidui can be candidates who are at least 25 years old, and have previously served as quaestor or vigintisexvir. The aediles curules enter office on Kal. Ian. ‡ (1 January) each year. Learn more ...
The most important magistracies regarding the public works and activities of Nova Roma, its cultural mission and function, are the four aediles. Among the four aediles, there are two aediles plebis, and two aediles curules. In corporate terminology, the aediles are the deputy secretaries and culture and community directors of the corporation. All four aediles are collectively responsible for the maintenance of the properties and infrastructure of Nova Roma, the physical and digital assets, the websites, forums and social media platforms, for commerce and for the educational, cultural and religious activities of the res publica, and for the organization of the ludi (public festivals and cultural and educational games), public religious events. The two aediles plebis ("aediles of the plebs") are considered slightly lower position within the aedilician collegium, and they are specifically responsible for the organization of the ludi Cereales and the ludi Plebei.
The eligibility requirements for plebeian aedilis are set by the lex Tullia annalis: only those plebeian assidui can be candidates who are at least 25 years old, and have previously served as quaestor or vigintisexvir. The aediles curules enter office on a.d. IV Id. Dec. ‡ (10 December) each year. Learn more ...
The quaestura (quaestorship) is one of the magistracies of Nova Roma, responsible to serve as primary assistants of the higher magistrates and guardians of the Treasury of Nova Roma. The quaestors are the treasurers and assistant directors of the corporation. There are eight quaestores elected annually by the comitia populi tributa to serve as aides and financial administrators to the consules, praetores, aediles and governors of the provinces of Nova Roma. After eight quaestores have been elected, the newly elected senior magistrates are consulted and asked which of the new quaestores they wish to have assigned to them. The new consules make the final determination of this, publishing an edict assigning four quaestores to the two consules and two praetores magistrates. The rest of the quaestores are serving as a pool of assistants to all other magistrates and governors. The consular and praetorian quaestores can also be assigned by other magistrates and governors to serve in their staffs, as well. The office of the quaestor can be prorogued by the comitia, the senate or by a governor: in this case, the title of the quaestor will change to proquaestor. A proquaestor has the same duties and powers as a quaestor but only within the limits of his provincia.
The eligibility requirements for quaestor are set by the lex Tullia annalis: to stand for election as quaestor, a potential candidate is required to be at least 21 years old, and must be assiduus. The quaestores enter office on Non. Dec. ‡ (5 December) each year. The quaestorship is the traditional first step of the cursus honorum. Learn more ...
The vigintiviratus is a college of the lowest elected magistrates in the Nova Roman Republic, based on the ancient Roman republican model. The name literally means "twenty chairmen", although their number in Nova Roma was set to ten. The word vir ("man"), or in plural viri ("men"), in contrast to homo (man), was usually implied to denote a politician, officer, or soldier, therefore to translate e.g. tresviri as "three chairmen", vigintiviri as "twenty chairmen" is very convenient and more fitting than to translate it as "twenty men"). Before prid. Kal. Ian. ‡ Sex. Lucilio (II) A. Tullia (II) cos. ‡ MMDCCLXXV a.u.c., the office was called vigintisexviratus ("chairmanship of the twenty-six"), and the name was changed by the lex Lucilia de vigintiviris.
Although the tribunatus plebis is not technically classified as a magistracy, in practice it is one of the ordinary magistracies. The tribunus plebis ("tribune of the plebs", plural: tribuni plebis) is a plebeian magistracy of Nova Roma, the defender of the rights and interests of the Nova Roman plebs, and the people in general. They are the "members' advocates" of the corporation. There are five tribuni plebis in Nova Roma who are elected by the comitia plebis tributa from among the plebeian citizens. The tribunatus plebis is one of the most powerful magistracies of Nova Roma: tribunes of the plebs can convene the comitia plebis tributa to pass their own laws, they are privy to the senate's discussions and can convene the senate for consultation, they can veto any action of any other magistrates, with the exception of the dictator, they can issue edicts and appoint their own apparitores. The utmost duty of the tribuni plebis is to protect the citizens of Nova Roma from any abuse or mistreatment by other magistrates and the senate. The tribuni plebis do not have any authority or rights outside the central administration of Nova Roma.
The eligibility requirements for tribunus plebis are set by the lex Tullia annalis: only those plebeian assidui can be candidates who are at least 25 years old, and have previously held either the office of vigintisexvir or quaestor. The tribunes of the plebs enter office on a.d. IV Id. Dec. ‡ (10 December) each year. Learn more ...
The extraordinary magistracies
The extraordinary magistracies (magistratus extraordinarii) are those which are filled only when they are needed. They are the:
The dictatorship is the highest extraordinary magistracy of Nova Roma. The dictator is an extraordinary supreme president of the republic with full executive powers. While the title suggests an absolutist and tyrannical power to the modern reader, in fact the honorable Roman position of dictator in Nova Roma is nothing else than an extraordinary sole president in charge instead of the usual co-presidents, with only a few special rights. Learn more ...
According the the Nova Roman Constitution, if both consular positions were vacant at the same time, the Senate should appoint an interrex to serve a term lasting no more than five days. The interrex must be a member of the patrician order, and shall have all the powers and responsibilities of a normally elected consul. The interrex shall organize new elections in the comitia centuriata to elect two new consuls to serve out the remainder of the previous consuls' term of office. Learn more ...
A Nova Roman governor is a person appointed by the senate to oversee the daily handling of a province. The governor of the province can be variously termed, consul, proconsul, praetor, propraetor, or legatus pro praetore; the title depends on previous offices held by the governor.
The lex Vedia provincialis outlines the powers and duties of the provincial governors. They may also appoint legates and other provincial officials, but they must follow guidelines set out by the senate.