Vigintiviri (Nova Roma)
The vigintiviratus is a college of the lowest elected magistrates in the Nova Roman Republic, based on the ancient Roman republican model. The name literally means "twenty chairmen", although their number in Nova Roma was set to ten. The word vir ("man"), or in plural viri ("men"), in contrast to homo (man), was usually implied to denote a politician, officer, or soldier, therefore to translate e.g. tresviri as "three chairmen", vigintiviri as "twenty chairmen" is very convenient and more fitting than to translate it as "twenty men"). Before prid. Kal. Ian. ‡ Sex. Lucilio (II) A. Tullia (II) cos. ‡ MMDCCLXXV a.u.c., the office was called vigintisexviratus ("chairmanship of the twenty-six"), and the name was changed by the lex Lucilia de vigintiviris.
Article IV.A.8 of the lex Cornelia Domitia de re publica constituenda stipulates how the offices of the vigintiviri shall be defined, and on the basis of their number, their actual collective name shall be determined. With the enactment of the lex Lucilia de vigintiviris, the collective term for these minor magistrates became vigintiviri, the magistracies of the vigintiviratus.
The Comitia Populi Tributa shall elect the following magistracies of the vigintiviratus who all shall enter office on the Kalends of January, and shall serve until the next Kalends of January. Their election shall be conducted before the end of the year, even if the required number of candidates did not apply for office, and even if there was only one call for candidates (depending on the decision of the presiding magistrate of the election). If the necessary number of people were not elected, at least one supplemental election will be held after all the higher magistrates have been elected so that all candidates who failed to obtain a higher magistracy may be able to run for vigintivir. Each magistracy of the vigintiviratus shall be considered fully set and functional if at least on position is filled in them.
Note: The female version of the title of the offices which have the “–vir” ending is “–vira", not only the ones listed but also those established by any other law of Nova Roma.
DECEMVIR STLITIBUS IUDICANDIS
Ten (10) judicial magistrates called decemviri stlitibus iudicandis (or less formally: decemviri litibus iudicandis) are elected yearly.
They serve as the administrative court and constitutional court of Nova Roma. They conduct proceedings and trials about complaints against administrative measures, disputes within the administration, debates between administrative officers, disputes about constitutional law, and the interpretation of law. They also serve as the default administrative law court for controversies about forum moderation issues of any official public forum of Nova Roma. They can also act as an appeals court in certain cases defined by law.
Three (3) captains general of the Nova Roman police, law enforcement magistrates, called triumviri capitales or tresviri capitales are elected yearly.
They serve as the magistrates responsible for public order and enforcing the public policies of Nova Roma. They act as public prosecutors and guardians of the Nova Roman legal system, administrative court for simpler forum moderation issues, lesser colleagues and inferiors of the aediles in forum management and maintenance of public order, and members of the Officium Aedilicium.
Their primary duties are to serve in the capacity of the chief of police of Nova Roma as captains general of the cohortes vigilum, existing in their form as both a reenactment unit and forum moderation administrative servicemen.
Three (3) magistrates responsible for the design, development, production, issuance and distribution of the coinage of Nova Roma shall be elected yearly.
Know as the tresviri monetales or triumviri monetales or, with their longer, more ceremonial name, tresviri aere argento auro flando feriundo they support and assist the quaestors, the curator aerarii and the Officium Aerarii in their job regarding the finances of Nova Roma. They are members of the Officium Aerarii and have the right and duty to propose ideas for the financial administration of Nova Roma therein.
QUATTUORVIR RERUM CURANDARUM
Four (4) magistrates, called quattuorviri rerum curandarum, responsible for maintaining and updating of the infrastructures of Nova Roma, are elected yearly.
The quattuorviri rerum curandarum assist all other magistrates that need help in any task, but primarily the aediles and the duties of the Officium Operum Publicorum, Officium Administrationis Publicae, Officium Rei Informaticae and Officium Aedilicium. They are therefore members of the Officium Operum Publicorum, Officium Administrationis Publicae, Officium Rei Informaticae and Officium Aedilicium, and have the right and duty to propose ideas for the relevant administrative tasks therein.
History of the vigintiviratus or vigintisexviratus in Nova Roma
Before prid. Kal. Ian. ‡ Sex. Lucilio (II) A. Tullia (II) cos. ‡ MMDCCLXXV a.u.c., the office was called vigintisexviratus (twenty-six chairmanship), and the name was changed by the lex Lucilia de vigintiviris. In Fr. Apulo C. Laenate cos. ‡ MMDCCLVIII a.u.c., the office of magister aranearius was removed from the vigintisexviratus and was made a senate appointed officer, like a curatorship. In L. Arminio Ti. Galerio cos. ‡ MMDCCLX a.u.c., the office of the editor commentariorum also became a senate appointment, although it remained part of the vigintisexviri. In L. Sulla (III) cos. sine collega ‡ MMDCCLXVI a.u.c., all offices of the vigintisexviratus were abolished, though it was maintained in the lex Equitia de constitutione corrigenda as a type of office for potential reintroduction. Diribitores, rogatores and custodes continued to be appointed but not as magistrates but only as subordinate officers similar to the category of apparitores.
The following offices were once part of the Nova Roman vigintisexviratus:
|Vigintisexvir magister aranearius
|the chief webmaster of Nova Roma
|Vigintisexvir editor commentariorum
|the editor-in-chief of the news and publications of Nova Roma
|two registrars of new citizens and voters
|four vote counting election officials
|two election jury officials