Governor (Nova Roma)

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Provincial Councils

Governors of provinces and specially appointed chief commanders, senior generals, of the ceremonial (reenactment) armies of Nova Roma are in the same category of special commissioners of Nova Roma. Both the geographic area of responsibility of a governor and the operational area of a command and the legions themselves of a general are called "provincia" in Roman legal terminology. Governors are also always the provincial chief commanders of the Nova Roman reenactment units of their province, therefore a governor is always a chief commander, a general, but not all chief commanders have to be governors. Both governors and chief commanders are either magistrates entrusted with the specific area of responsibility or command ("povincia"), or promagistrates, prorogued or appointed specifically for that task. Just like in ancient Rome, it is possible to appoint special commanders-in-chief for complex Roman military reenactment related or other crucial organizational missions in Nova Roma who may or may not be governors within their territorial scope of command at the same time, as well.

Contents

Generals of reenactment armies

Roman generals can be legally classified as governors of an army, the army being their "provincia". A Nova Roman reenactment army general is a chief commander appointed by the senate as its commissioner to lead, manage and oversee the operation and administration of a certain reenactment units. All such army generals are subordinate to the senate and to the consuls and praetors. The current special commanders-in-chief of certain assigned reenactment armies of Nova Roma are listed here:

Governors of provinces

A Nova Roman governor is a special type of chief commander, reenactment army general, appointed by the senate as its commissioner to lead, manage and oversee the operation and administration of a province and its reenactment units. All provincial governors are subordinate to the senate and to the central Nova Roma magistrates.

Titles

Ancient Romans didn't use the term "governor" or "gubernatorial" to articulate the appointed leaders of regions or provinces like the way it is done in the modern context. The title for a citizen who is governor of a Roman province can be one of any number of terms including: consul, proconsul, praetor, propraetor, or legatus pro praetore. The title depends on the office or previous office held by the governor.

  • Currently-serving consules governing provinces are be titled consul. Former consules who are continuing to govern a province after their term as consul ends are titled proconsul.
  • Currently-serving praetores governing a province are titled praetor. Praetores who continue to govern a province after their first term of office ends are titled propraetor.
  • A "governor" of Provincia Italia (Italy) is called praefectus Italiae. If a sitting consul or praetor resides in Italy and they serve as "governor" on behalf of the senate of Nova Roma, they are called consul or praetor.
  • Currently serving quaestores may be granted a temporary governorship by the will of the senate until a permanent successor is found. They will have the title of quaestor pro praetore.
  • Special instances of a citizen acting as a chief-governor of a dioecesis (a cluster of provinces temporarily combined together for reorganization) is called a dux.
  • All other citizens appointed by the senate to govern a province of Nova Roma are called legatus pro praetore.

Powers & Responsibilities

Articles V.C 1-5 of the lex Cornelia Domitia de re publica constituenda outlines the powers and duties of the provincial governors. These powers, as one would expect, are limited to the boundaries of the province.

Oath of Office

Before conducting or exercising any powers within the province, a governor must take an oath of office. The oath is conducted in accordance with the lex Iunia de iure iurando and edictum praetorium Barosi de iure iurando Latino.

Passing Local Laws

Edicta may be proclaimed on matters solely related to the day to day management of the province. Governors are bound by the lex Arria de edictis that stipulates that when first appointed, they must first promulgate an edictum that confirms or revokes any edicta of their predecessors (when applicable). In accordance with the lex Vedia de ratione edictorum, all provincial edicts must be posted to the main Nova Roma forum the Forum Romanum to be considered valid. Edictum consulare de regulis edictorum gerendorum in foro praecipuo requires specific formatting when posting an edict to the forum.

Judicial Matters

The lex Equitia de iurisdictione allows the governor to manage and grant trials in any matter between citizens who live in that provincia (or in any matter between a citizen and a peregrinus who both live in that provincia or between peregrini who both live in that provincia. Governors are bound by the process and law defined in the lex Salvia iudiciaria and the lex Salvia poenalis.

Citizen Data Privacy

Governors may be provided citizen data by the Office of the Censors to effectively administer their province. The lex Galeria de privatis rebus mandates the handling requirements of that data to aid in maintaining citizen data privacy. Within the province, only governors and directly appointed assistants (such as lietenant governors or provincial quaestors; normally first-rank officials) can have access to such data. Governors may also be given duties with the powers of the censors to carry out specific data tasks under the lex Arminia de levandis censorum oneribus.

Forming Local Groups

As part of the objectives and mission of Nova Roma, governors should seek to partner with or establish local reenactment and living-history groups. The legilsation that governs the formal relationships Nova Roma can form with entities like Roman reenactment legions is documented in the Lex Aurelia de legionibus. Governors will also play a role in encouraging, overseeing and facilitating the founding of municipalities, with the framework for these local communities articulated in the lex Fabia de oppidis et municipiis.

Reporting

Governors are required to submit a formal report on the status of their province each year by the Kal. Feb. in accordance with the senatus consultum de relationibus praesidum provinciarum. The report must provide a detailed evaluation of activities and citizenhsip against key performance indicators as required by the senatus consultum de provinciis ordinandis.

Managing Provincial Apparitores

Governors are entitled to appoint provincial officials via an edictum, but they must follow the guidelines set out by the senate and the applicable Nova Roman legislation. Not all provincial positions are apparitores, but for those that are, the lex Vedia apparitoria (Nova Roma) governs the types available and the duties they perform. Governors should make sure they stipulate the necessary requirements documented in the lex in those edicta that appoint provincial officials and staff.

As in antiquity, a provincial governor also has the honor of being preceded by a number of lictores depending on their rank of office. Twelve for governors with consular imperium, six for governors with praetorian imperium, and five for governors who are not holding their governorship as propraetors or otherwise haven't held the office of praetor.

Census Points

Under the lex Arria de censu civium aestimando, governors are awarded 50 Census Points (CP) under article III.A.7.d.i when appointed. They are not entitled to more CP unless prorogued by the senate.

Governors are also given leverage to create activities, positions and awards that offer CP. Governors can facilitate local competitions that award CP under article III.D.2. Article III.F. defines the various tiers of award that governors can associate to some public reward for service or recognition internally. Note that all awards issued by a governor are subject to review and oversight of the censors and panel of quaestors as per article II.

Website Province Pages

Governors have access to a set of pages on the Nova Roma official website that they can manage or direct the content thereof. These pages can list information about their provincial praetorium, the cohors praetoria, local events, history, citizenry and links to any external website of forum that represents the province or governor.

Legal precedence

Governors may be replaced at any time and specially every year when the senate examines their annual activity. A governor thus cannot challenge the authority of the senate. While appointed, governors are entrusted to preside over their province based on their discretion and judgement. They have full power to command and make laws within the province, so long as they are bound by the existing Nova Roma legislation.

Although they depend directly on the senate, governors are submitted to the higher imperium of the central magistrates, too: their local imperium applies as long as it does not enter in conflict with the higher imperium of the praetores or consules of Nova Roma. All governors obey any consular official request or a praetorian request, when the praetor acts in the place of the consules or in the frame of their own special administrative or judicial competencies whose execution is necessary in the concerned province. Similarly, the governor must apply every measure issued by any central magistrate, even if this magistrate has no imperium, but works in a field which results of the application of Nova Roman law.

Provinces are normally first given to sitting consuls and praetors, who may continue their governorship by prorogation of imperium from the senate or the comitia. When that is impossible or impractical, provinces are assigned to former consuls and praetors, whose imperium is renewed by the senate or the comitia. When no current or former consul or praetor can be found as the most suitable candidate for the governorship, the senate or the comitia can grant imperium and assign the province to another individual. No governor shall assume imperium and auspicia without a taking of office ceremony of the Religio Romana before, including an inauguration and taking the vows of imperium, the oaths and auspices for the term of office with a favorable result; a governor without these procedural steps may not legally exercise any powers of his office.


Current Governors of Nova Roman Provinces

Provincia Countries (links to provincial lists/web pages included) Current governor
1 Italia Italy, Vatican, San Marino, and Malta Praefectus Italiae Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
2 America Cismississippiana USA - Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North and South Carolina, Tennessee, and the overseas territories of Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands Propraetrix M. Hortensia Maior Fabiana Faustina
3 America Hispanica USA - Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico Proconsul C. Tullius Valerianus Germanicus
4 America Noveboracensis et Mediatlantica USA - Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia Proconsul T. Domitius Draco
5 America Transmississippiana USA - Alaska, Arkansas, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North and South Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming Quaestor pro praetore Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
6 Australia Australia and New Zealand Praetor D. Aurelius Ingeniarius
7 Brasilia Brazil Quaestor pro praetore Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
8 California USA - California, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, and Hawaii Proconsul Q. Fabius Maximus
9 Canada Canada Proconsul C. Claudius Quadratus
10 Dacia Romania and Moldavia Legatus pro praetore Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
11 Europa Celtica et Germanica Established as a superprovince, a dioecesis, comprising those European provinces which are in need of reorganization and reactivation: It includes the following four subprovinces: Dux dioecesis Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
(I) Britannia Province I of the dioecesis: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Ireland Dux et legatus pro praetore Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
(II) Gallia Province II of the dioecesis: Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, France, Monaco, and French overseas territories. Dux et legatus pro praetore Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
(III) Germania Province III of the dioecesis: Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein and Switzerland. Dux et legatus pro praetore Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
(IV) Thule Province IV of the dioecesis: Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland Dux et legatus pro praetore Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
12 Hispania Portugal and Spain Propraetor pro consule Q. Lutatius Catulus
13 Lacus Magni USA - Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio and Kentucky Legatus pro praetore Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
14 Marcomannia Czechia and Slovakia Legatus pro praetore Ti. Iulius Nerva
15 Nova Britannia USA - Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island Legatus pro praetore A. Iulius Paterculus
16 Nova Hispania Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama Quaestor pro praetore Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
17 Pannonia Slovenia and Hungary Legatus pro praetore Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
18 Sarmatia Ukraine Propraetrix M. Hortensia Maior Fabiana Faustina
19 Scythia et Russia Russia and Belarus Propraetrix M. Hortensia Maior Fabiana Faustina
20 Thracia Bulgaria Legatus pro praetore A. Vitellius Celsus
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