Governor (Nova Roma)
Governors of provinces and specially appointed chief commanders, senior generals, of the ceremonial (reenactment) armies of Nova Roma are in the same category of special commissioners of Nova Roma. Both the geographic area of responsibility of a governor and the operational area of a command and the legions themselves of a general are called "provincia" in Roman legal terminology. Governors are also always the provincial chief commanders of the Nova Roman reenactment units of their province, therefore a governor is always a chief commander, a general, but not all chief commanders have to be governors. Both governors and chief commanders are either magistrates entrusted with the specific area of responsibility or command ("povincia"), or promagistrates, prorogued or appointed specifically for that task. Just like in ancient Rome, it is possible to appoint special commanders-in-chief for complex Roman military reenactment related or other crucial organizational missions in Nova Roma who may or may not be governors within their territorial scope of command at the same time, as well.
Generals of reenactment armies
Roman generals can be legally classified as governors of an army, the army being their "provincia". A Nova Roman reenactment army general is a chief commander appointed by the senate as its commissioner to lead, manage and oversee the operation and administration of a certain reenactment units. All such army generals are subordinate to the senate and to the consuls and praetors. The current special commanders-in-chief of certain assigned reenactment armies of Nova Roma are listed here:
Governors of provinces
A Nova Roman governor is a special type of chief commander, reenactment army general, appointed by the senate as its commissioner to lead, manage and oversee the operation and administration of a province and its reenactment units. All provincial governors are subordinate to the senate and to the central Nova Roma magistrates.
Ancient Romans didn't use the term "governor" or "gubernatorial" to articulate the appointed leaders of regions or provinces like the way it is done in the modern context. The title for a citizen who is governor of a Roman province can be one of any number of terms including: consul, proconsul, praetor, propraetor, or legatus pro praetore. The title depends on the office or previous office held by the governor.
- Currently-serving consules governing provinces are be titled consul. Former consules who are continuing to govern a province after their term as consul ends are titled proconsul.
- Currently-serving praetores governing a province are titled praetor. Praetores who continue to govern a province after their first term of office ends are titled propraetor.
- A "governor" of Provincia Italia (Italy) is called praefectus Italiae. If a sitting consul or praetor resides in Italy and they serve as "governor" on behalf of the senate of Nova Roma, they are called consul or praetor.
- Currently serving quaestores may be granted a temporary governorship by the will of the senate until a permanent successor is found. They will have the title of quaestor pro praetore.
- Special instances of a citizen acting as a chief-governor of a dioecesis (a cluster of provinces temporarily combined together for reorganization) is called a dux.
- All other citizens appointed by the senate to govern a province of Nova Roma are called legatus pro praetore.
Powers & Responsibilities
Articles V.C 1-5 of the lex Cornelia Domitia de re publica constituenda outlines the powers and duties of the provincial governors. These powers, as one would expect, are limited to the boundaries of the province.
Oath of Office
Before conducting or exercising any powers within the province, a governor must take an oath of office. The oath is conducted in accordance with the lex Iunia de iure iurando and edictum praetorium Barosi de iure iurando Latino.
Passing Local Laws
Edicta may be proclaimed on matters solely related to the day to day management of the province. Governors are bound by the lex Arria de edictis that stipulates that when first appointed, they must first promulgate an edictum that confirms or revokes any edicta of their predecessors (when applicable). In accordance with the lex Vedia de ratione edictorum, all provincial edicts must be posted to the main Nova Roma forum the Forum Romanum to be considered valid. Edictum consulare de regulis edictorum gerendorum in foro praecipuo requires specific formatting when posting an edict to the forum.
The lex Equitia de iurisdictione allows the governor to manage and grant trials in any matter between citizens who live in that provincia (or in any matter between a citizen and a peregrinus who both live in that provincia or between peregrini who both live in that provincia. Governors are bound by the process and law defined in the lex Salvia iudiciaria and the lex Salvia poenalis.
Citizen Data Privacy
Governors may be provided citizen data by the Office of the Censors to effectively administer their province. The lex Galeria de privatis rebus mandates the handling requirements of that data to aid in maintaining citizen data privacy. Within the province, only governors and directly appointed assistants (such as lietenant governors or provincial quaestors; normally first-rank officials) can have access to such data. Governors may also be given duties with the powers of the censors to carry out specific data tasks under the lex Arminia de levandis censorum oneribus.
Forming Local Groups
As part of the objectives and mission of Nova Roma, governors should seek to partner with or establish local reenactment and living-history groups. The legilsation that governs the formal relationships Nova Roma can form with entities like Roman reenactment legions is documented in the Lex Aurelia de legionibus. Governors will also play a role in encouraging, overseeing and facilitating the founding of municipalities, with the framework for these local communities articulated in the lex Fabia de oppidis et municipiis.
Governors are required to submit a formal report on the status of their province each year by the Kal. Feb. in accordance with the senatus consultum de relationibus praesidum provinciarum. The report must provide a detailed evaluation of activities and citizenhsip against key performance indicators as required by the senatus consultum de provinciis ordinandis.
Managing Provincial Apparitores
Governors are entitled to appoint provincial officials via an edictum, but they must follow the guidelines set out by the senate and the applicable Nova Roman legislation. Not all provincial positions are apparitores, but for those that are, the lex Vedia apparitoria (Nova Roma) governs the types available and the duties they perform. Governors should make sure they stipulate the necessary requirements documented in the lex in those edicta that appoint provincial officials and staff.
As in antiquity, a provincial governor also has the honor of being preceded by a number of lictores depending on their rank of office. Twelve for governors with consular imperium, six for governors with praetorian imperium, and five for governors who are not holding their governorship as propraetors or otherwise haven't held the office of praetor.
Governors are also given leverage to create activities, positions and awards that offer CP. Governors can facilitate local competitions that award CP under article III.D.2. Article III.F. defines the various tiers of award that governors can associate to some public reward for service or recognition internally. Note that all awards issued by a governor are subject to review and oversight of the censors and panel of quaestors as per article II.
Website Province Pages
Governors have access to a set of pages on the Nova Roma official website that they can manage or direct the content thereof. These pages can list information about their provincial praetorium, the cohors praetoria, local events, history, citizenry and links to any external website of forum that represents the province or governor.
Governors may be replaced at any time and specially every year when the senate examines their annual activity. A governor thus cannot challenge the authority of the senate. While appointed, governors are entrusted to preside over their province based on their discretion and judgement. They have full power to command and make laws within the province, so long as they are bound by the existing Nova Roma legislation.
Although they depend directly on the senate, governors are submitted to the higher imperium of the central magistrates, too: their local imperium applies as long as it does not enter in conflict with the higher imperium of the praetores or consules of Nova Roma. All governors obey any consular official request or a praetorian request, when the praetor acts in the place of the consules or in the frame of their own special administrative or judicial competencies whose execution is necessary in the concerned province. Similarly, the governor must apply every measure issued by any central magistrate, even if this magistrate has no imperium, but works in a field which results of the application of Nova Roman law.
Provinces are normally first given to sitting consuls and praetors, who may continue their governorship by prorogation of imperium from the senate or the comitia. When that is impossible or impractical, provinces are assigned to former consuls and praetors, whose imperium is renewed by the senate or the comitia. When no current or former consul or praetor can be found as the most suitable candidate for the governorship, the senate or the comitia can grant imperium and assign the province to another individual. No governor shall assume imperium and auspicia without a taking of office ceremony of the Religio Romana before, including an inauguration and taking the vows of imperium, the oaths and auspices for the term of office with a favorable result; a governor without these procedural steps may not legally exercise any powers of his office.