Election MMDCCLXII (Nova Roma)

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spqr-white-blue-50.gif NOVA ROMA: ELECTION MMDCCLXII A.U.C.

M. Curiatio M. Iulio coss.

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Contents

Voting in this comitia has ended.

The offices, number of openings, and candidates are:

Consul (2)

The consulship is the highest executive magistracy of Nova Roma. The two consules, elected by the comitia centuriata are the presidents of the republic which means that they are the presidents of the corporation of Nova Roma, Inc. As the most powerful chief magistracy of Nova Roma, the consules can convene the comitia to pass legislation, call the senate to enact senatus consulta, issue edicts with administrative instructions and regulation of minor issues. They are the ceremonial commanders-in-chief of the Nova Roman Reenactment Army, and the representatives of the Nova Roman people within the sacra publica of the Roman religion. Each year is named after the two consuls of the year.

The eligibility requirements for the consulship are set by the lex Tullia annalis: only those assidui can be candidates who are at least 40 years old, and have previously held either the office of praetor, or both aedilis and quaestor, or both tribunus plebis and quaestor. The consuls enter office on Kal. Ian. (1 January) each year.

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Praetor (2)

The praetor is the second highest executive magistrate and vice-president of the Nova Roman Republic (Nova Roma, Inc.). The praetores are considered as lower colleagues and deputies for the consules. There are two praetores in Nova Roma and their principal duty is to fill a secondary leadership role in the government, to oversee and to administer the judicial system of Nova Roma (the conflict resolution system within the organization), to carry our special tasks, be in charge of assigned projects and to represent the citizens who are not part of any province of Nova Roma.

The eligibility requirements for praetor are set by the lex Tullia annalis: only those assidui can be candidates who are at least 30 years old, and have previously held the quaestorship combined with aediliship, or with the tribuneship of the plebs, or with the vigintisexviratus. The praetors enter office on Kal. Ian. (1 January) each year.

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Censor (1)

The censorship is the most respected and sacred magistracies of Nova Roma. There are two censores who are elected once in every two-and-a-half years period by the comitia centuriata, and unlike other magistrates, they have a 18 months term of office, however, by tradition, they are expected to step down as soon as they have completed the census. In corporate terminology, the censors are the secretaries of the corporation. The censores have with the highest auctoritas to safeguard the public morality and honor but third in rank after the consules and praetores, because they do not possess imperium, and have no power to convene either the senate or an assembly of the people. Their principal duty of the censors is to conduct the census twice in every five year period, the traditional lustrum, and, as a part of the census, to maintain the register of citizens, equestrians and senators, to classify all citizens according to their merit, to allocate citizens into classes, centuries and tribes, to distribute awards and reprimands, to elevate or remove members of the equestrian order, to appoint and remove members of the senate, and to guard public honor and morality. It is also the censors' job to set the general direction of public works and finances between two censuses, in cooperation with the aediles.

The eligibility requirements for censor are set by the lex Tullia annalis: only those assidui can be candidates who are at least 40 years old, and have previously served as consul. The censores enter office on Kal. Ian. (1 January) of the year for which they are elected to hold the census, or if they are elected out of order, they enter office as soon as elected.

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Comitia Populi Tributa

Voting in this comitia has ended.

The offices, number of openings, and candidates are:

Curule Aedile (2)

The most important magistracies regarding the public works and activities of Nova Roma, its cultural mission and function, are the four aediles. Among the four aediles, there are two aediles curules, and two aediles plebis. In corporate terminology, the aediles are the deputy secretaries and culture and community directors of the corporation. All four aediles are collectively responsible for the maintenance of the properties and infrastructure of Nova Roma, the physical and digital assets, the websites, forums and social media platforms, for commerce and for the educational, cultural and religious activities of the res publica, and for the organization of the ludi (public festivals and cultural and educational games), public religious events. The two aediles curules (curule aediles) are considered the more senior position within the aedilician collegium, specifically responsible for the organization of the ludi Novi Romani, ludi Megalenses and the ludi Romani.

The eligibility requirements for aedilis curulis are set by the lex Tullia annalis: only those assidui can be candidates who are at least 25 years old, and have previously served as quaestor or vigintisexvir. The aediles curules enter office on Kal. Ian. (1 January) each year.

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Quaestor (8)

The quaestura (quaestorship) is one of the magistracies of Nova Roma, responsible to serve as primary assistants of the higher magistrates and guardians of the Treasury of Nova Roma. The quaestors are the treasurers and assistant directors of the corporation. There are eight quaestores elected annually by the comitia populi tributa to serve as aides and financial administrators to the consules, praetores, aediles and governors of the provinces of Nova Roma. After eight quaestores have been elected, the newly elected senior magistrates are consulted and asked which of the new quaestores they wish to have assigned to them. The new consules make the final determination of this, publishing an edict assigning four quaestores to the two consules and two praetores magistrates. The rest of the quaestores are serving as a pool of assistants to all other magistrates and governors. The consular and praetorian quaestores can also be assigned by other magistrates and governors to serve in their staffs, as well.

The eligibility requirements for quaestor are set by the lex Tullia annalis: to stand for election as quaestor, a potential candidate is required to be at least 21 years old, and must be assiduus. The quaestores enter office on Non. Dec. (5 December) each year. The quaestorship is the traditional first step of the cursus honorum.

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Rogator (2)

The rogatores are a type of election officials as defined in article II.C.1. of the lex Tullia de comitiis habendis.

They are appointed by a presiding officer shortly before the comitia, or by the edict of summons, for the duration of the comitia. Their term of office ends automatically when the comitia are dissolved. They shall uniformly receive service points according to the article III.A.7.c.ii of the lex Arria de censu civium aestimando, “4th rank Officials: Apparitor (accensus, scriba, praeco, lictor etc)”. Only assidui can be appointed, and the presiding magistrate is not allowed to occupy this office.

The duties of the rogatores are:

  • To encourage the citizens to vote by advertising the voting in any and all venues of communication;
  • To assist citizens in the voting procedure;
  • To answer citizen questions in connection to the technical and procedural aspects of voting;
  • To identify and to register the voters by centuries or tribes, and to pass the anonymous list of votes by centuries and tribes to the diribitores for counting; and
  • For the sake of tiebreaking, the rogatores shall provide the citizenship date and the birthdate of all candidates to the diribitores.

Under the duration of the voting period, the rogatores shall identify the centuries and tribes of the individual voters, group the votes by centuries and tribes, and shall, no later than within 3 hours after the end of the voting period, report the votes by centuries or tribes, without the name of the voters, to the diribitores. If the diribitores need help in the counting, the rogatores and the custodes are allowed to assist.

The rogatores shall have access both to the cista and Censorial Database of the Album Civium in order to fulfil their duties. Because the rogatores work with sensitive private data of the citizens, only officers of the Censorial Office may be appointed to this position. One of the rogatores can also be appointed as custos. There shall be at least one rogator for any given session of the comitia. Candidates for censorship, consulship, praetorship and plebeian tribuneship may not serve as rogatores.

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Diribitor (4)

The diribitores are a type of election officials as defined in article II.C.1. of the lex Tullia de comitiis habendis. In antiquity the diribitors were typically young men who had just completed their military service. The office of diribitor is a traditional first step toward the cursus honorum.

They are appointed by a presiding officer shortly before the comitia, or by the edict of summons, for the duration of the comitia. Their term of office ends automatically when the comitia are dissolved. They shall uniformly receive service points according to the article III.A.7.c.ii of the lex Arria de censu civium aestimando, “4th rank Officials: Apparitor (accensus, scriba, praeco, lictor etc)”. Only assidui can be appointed, and the presiding magistrate is not allowed to occupy this office.

The duties of the diribitores are:

  • To count the votes within the tribes and centuries,
  • To to calculate the total result of the votes of tribes and centuries, and
  • To resolve the ties which do not involve the drawing of lots.

Under the duration of the voting period, the diribitores have to count the votes and determine the result no later than 6 hours after the end of the voting period. If the diribitores need help in the counting, the rogatores and the custodes are allowed to assist. The rogatores may invite one or more diribitores to access the cista, and to be privy to the names of the voters; but those diribitores who are not involved shall still not receive the names for the counting.

One of the diribitores can also be appointed as custos. There shall be at least two diribitores for any given session of the comitia.


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Custos (2)

The custodes are a type of election officials as defined in article II.C.1. of the lex Tullia de comitiis habendis. The Latin word "custos" means "guard" or "watcher" and in antiquity it was typical for very senior people such as senators and consulars to serve as custodes.

They are appointed by a presiding officer shortly before the comitia, or by the edict of summons, for the duration of the comitia. Their term of office ends automatically when the comitia are dissolved. They shall uniformly receive service points according to the article III.A.7.c.ii of the lex Arria de censu civium aestimando, “4th rank Officials: Apparitor (accensus, scriba, praeco, lictor etc)”. Only assidui can be appointed, and the presiding magistrate is not allowed to occupy this office.

The duties of the custodes are:

  • To guard, supervise and certify the entire voting process, and to resolve ties which require a drawing of lots; and
  • To send the certified results of the comitia to the presiding magistrate.

The custodes have the responsibility to supervise and control the regularity and lawfulness of the voting and vote counting process, and to investigate any verifiable concern regarding the vote, during the voting period of the comitia. The custodes shall have the ability to review all actions taken by the rogatores and diribitores to ensure accuracy and impartiality. The custodes shall send the certified results of the comitia to the presiding magistrate within a day (24 hours) after the conclusion of the vote. If the custodes need additional time, they may seek an extension of time from the presiding magistrate who has the discretion to approve an extension or not. If there are more than one custos in office, all of them shall sign the certification of the voting. If they are in disagreement, this counts as a refusal of certification, and those disputing the validity of the voting shall send their report on the irregularities to the presiding magistrate.

If the diribitores need help in the counting, the rogatores and the custodes are allowed to assist. The custodes shall have access to the cista in order to fulfil their duties. A diribitor or a rogator can be appointed as custos, but no election official shall fill all three offices, and there shall be at least one custos who is not a rogator. Candidates in the election are not allowed to serve as custodes.

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Comitia Plebis Tributa

Voting in this comitia has ended.

The offices, number of openings, and candidates are:

Aedilis Plebis (2)

The most important magistracies regarding the public works and activities of Nova Roma, its cultural mission and function, are the four aediles. Among the four aediles, there are two aediles plebis, and two aediles curules. In corporate terminology, the aediles are the deputy secretaries and culture and community directors of the corporation. All four aediles are collectively responsible for the maintenance of the properties and infrastructure of Nova Roma, the physical and digital assets, the websites, forums and social media platforms, for commerce and for the educational, cultural and religious activities of the res publica, and for the organization of the ludi (public festivals and cultural and educational games), public religious events. The two aediles plebis ("aediles of the plebs") are considered slightly lower position within the aedilician collegium, and they are specifically responsible for the organization of the ludi Cereales and the ludi Plebei.

The eligibility requirements for plebeian aedilis are set by the lex Tullia annalis: only those plebeian assidui can be candidates who are at least 25 years old, and have previously served as quaestor or vigintisexvir. The aediles curules enter office on a.d. IV Id. Dec. (10 December) each year.

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Tribunus Plebis (5)

The tribunus plebis ("tribune of the plebs", plural: tribuni plebis) is a plebeian magistracy of Nova Roma, the defender of the rights and interests of the Nova Roman plebs, and the people in general. They are the "members' advocates" of the corporation. There are five tribuni plebis in Nova Roma who are elected by the comitia plebis tributa from among the plebeian citizens. The tribunatus plebis is one of the most powerful magistracies of Nova Roma: tribunes of the plebs can convene the comitia plebis tributa to pass their own laws, they are privy to the senate's discussions and can convene the senate for consultation, they can veto any action of any other magistrates, with the exception of the dictator, they can issue edicts and appoint their own apparitores. The utmost duty of the tribuni plebis is to protect the citizens of Nova Roma from any abuse or mistreatment by other magistrates and the senate. The tribuni plebis do not have any authority or rights outside the central administration of Nova Roma.

The eligibility requirements for tribunus plebis are set by the lex Tullia annalis: only those plebeian assidui can be candidates who are at least 25 years old, and have previously held either the office of vigintisexvir or quaestor. The tribunes of the plebs enter office on a.d. IV Id. Dec. (10 December) each year.

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